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流动的光彩

岁月如水 人生是河 宽容能拯救一切

 
 
 

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我有点懒,可是我很幸福。因为我有时时刻刻关心我的父母,时时刻刻照顾我的老婆,还有离不开我的一个漂亮的小姑娘。 对于生活,我很满足。

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(Go for it)新目标九年级英语毕业专项复习教案、学案、讲义及练习题---动词概述  

2011-03-28 10:44:44|  分类: 会考复习资料 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

、动词

1、动词的分类:

   

                 

              

实义动词

含有实在的意义,表示动作或状态,在句子中能独立作谓语。

She has some bananas. 些香蕉。

They eat a lot of potatoes. 他们常土豆。

I’m reading an English book now.

我现在正一本英文书。

连系动词

本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须和表语一起构成谓语。

His father is a teacher.他父亲教师。

Twins usually look the same.

双胞胎通常看起来一样。

The teacher became very angry. 老师变得很生气。

助动词

本身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,用来表示否定、疑问、时态、语态或其它语法形式,助动词自身有人称、单复数和时态的变化。

He doesn’t speak English. 他不说英语。

We are playing basketball. 我们在打篮球。

Do you have a brother? 你有兄弟吗?

情态动词

本身有一定的意义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示说话人的语气和情态。情态动词没有人称和单复数的变化,有些情态动词有过去式。

You can keep the books for two weeks.

这些书你可以借两个星期。

May I smoke here? 可以在这儿抽烟吗?

We must go now.  我们现在走了。

★重要注解:

(1) 关于实义动词:

    英语的实义动词又可分为及物动词不及物动词两大类:

后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的叫及物动词;本身意义完整,后面不需跟宾语的叫不及物动词。

有些动词通常只作不及物动词。如:go,come,happen,lie,listen,rise,arrive,hall等。

有些动词通常用作及物动词。如:say, raise, lay, find, buy等。

大多数动词可以兼作及物动词和不及物动词。如:study, sing等。

有些动词作及物动词与作不及物动词时的意义有所不同。如:know, wash等。

有些动词常和介词 、副词或其它词类一起构成固定词组,形成短语动词。如:listen,reply,wait,look.

(2) 关于连系动词:

      连系动词用来连接主语和表语,连系动词后面常为形容词。

      常见的连系动词有:bebecomelookfeelsoundsmelltasteseemturngrowget  gofallsitstandlie 等。

      有些连系动词来源于实义动词,意思也跟着变化look(看→看起来)feel(感觉、摸→感到)  smell(闻、嗅→闻起来)taste(尝→尝起来)turn(翻转、转动→变得)grow(生长→变得)get(得到、到达→变得)go(去→变得),所不同的是,作为实义动词时,后面不能跟形容词。

[注释]

becomegetgobegrowturn的用法区别become表示“变成”,比较正式,通常不用将来时表示动作已经完成。get也表示动作已经完成,但是更加口语化,通常表示温度、时间、岁数等变化。go表示“变得”,常见于某些短语中,后面常有形容词badblindhungry等。be表示“是、成为、当”,多用于将来时、祈使句或不定式中。grow表示“变得”,常指逐渐的变化,表示身高、岁数的增长。turn表示“变得”,指变为与原先不同的情况,通常指颜色等变化。如:I was caught in the rain and I became ill.(我淋雨感冒了)/ He has got rich.(他变富了)/ He will be a scientist in the future.(将来他将成为科学家)/ My little brother has grown much taller in the past year.(在过去的一年里我的弟弟长得高多了)/ The sandwich has gone bad.(那块三明治已经变坏)/ Her face turned red after her mother criticized(批评) her.(妈妈批评了他以后他的脸变红了)

(3) 关于助动词

①常见的助动词有:用于进行时和被动语态的be (am, is, are ,was, were, been, being ) ;用于完成时的have(has,had,having) ;用于将来时的shall (should) ; will (would)和用于一般时的do(does,did) .

助动词必须同主语的人称和数一致,也就是说因主语人称、数的不同而采用不同的形式,其中有些助动词也可作情态动词。如:shall, will, should, would.

  (4) 关于情态动词:

①常见的情态动词有:can (could) ,may (might), must ,shall (should), will (would), dare (dared) , need,另外,have tohad better也当作情态动词使用。情态动词后面必须加动词的原形。

can表示体力、脑力方面的能力或客观的可能性。口语中, 在询问或说明一件事可不可以做时,常用“can”代替“may”。情态动词“can”的过去式是“could,否定式是“cannot”通常缩写成“can’t,could”的否定式是“could not,通常缩写成“couldn’t”。如:Can I help you?(要帮忙吗?)/ He can swim.(他会游泳)/ That can’t be Mr Li.(那不可能是李先生)

may表示允许、请求或可能性,may提问时,肯定回答一般用CertainlyYes,you may.;否定回答一般用can’tmustn’t. 如:May I ask you a question?—Certainly.(可以问你一个问题吗?当然可以)/ You may go now.(现在你可以走了)/ It may be in your pocket.(它可能在你的衣袋里)

must表示“必须”、“一定”的意思。表示“必须”时否定形式是mustn’t;表示“一定”时,否定形式是“can’t 如:We must be very careful when we cross the road.(我们过马路时一定要非常小心)/ It must be Jack.(那准是杰克)/ I haven’t seen Kate today. She can’t be here.(我今天没有看到过凯特,她不可能在这里)

[注意]must(必须)进行提问时,肯定回答用must,否定回答用needn’t;用must(一定)进行提问时,肯定回答仍用must,但是否定回答用can’t.如:Must we clean the room before we leave? –Yes,you must.No,you needn’t.(我们走之前必须要打扫房间吗?是的,必须打扫。/ ,不需要。) / Must she be in the romm? –Yes,she must.No,she can’t.(她一定在房间里吗?是的,一定。/ ,不可能在。)

have to”表示“不得不”、“必须”。We’ll have to leave now for it is very late at night.

  have to的疑问形式是:助动词+…+have to,否定形式是:助动词+not+have to或者用needn’t.如:Do you have to stay until 8 o’clock?(你得呆到8点钟吗?)/ You don’t have to do so.(=You needn’t do so.)(你不用这么做)

shall在问句中,可表示征求对方意见,与第一人称连用;在陈述句的第二、三人称的主语后或表示“命令”、“警告”、“允许”等。如:Shall we go to the zoo this weekend?(我们这个周末去动物园好吗?)/ He shall bring his own book next time.(他下次必须带自己的书来)

should可表示“劝告”、“建议”、“惊奇”等意思。We should speak to old people politely.(我们应该礼貌地对老人讲话)

will表示“意愿”、“决心”等意思,一般与第二人称连用。如:Will you please close the door for me?(请你替我把门关上好吗?)/ I will teach you a lesson.(我要教训你一顿)

would表示过去的“意愿”、“决心”等。He would sit near the fire every time he returned home.(每次他回到家中总要坐在火炉边)

would也可以表示现在的情况,表达说话人向对方提出的要求,语气比“will”婉转、客气。在日常会话中,“我想要…”通常用“I would like to”或“I should(I’d) like to”来表示。如:Would you like to have a rest at the moment?(你现在想要休息一下吗?)

would还可以表示过去经常发生的事情。如:Every year parents would tell their children about the boy who would save his people.(每一年父母们总是向孩子们讲述这个将会拯救他的人民的男孩的事)

need表示“需要”,用于疑问句或否定句。“need”作实义动词时,在肯定、否定、疑问句中都可以用。如:He needn’t do it in such a hurry.(他不需要如此匆忙地做这件事)/ He needs some help.(他需要一些帮助)/ He doesn’t need to bring his football socks then.(那么他就无须带上足球袜了)

dare是“敢”的意思,用法几乎与“need”完全相同,即在疑问句和否定句中,可以作情态动词,后面用不带“to”的动词不定式。在肯定句中和实义动词一样,后面的动词不定式要带“to”。How dare you say I am a fool?(你竟敢说我是个傻瓜?)/ He didn’t dare to touch the red button.(他不敢触碰那个红色的按钮)

‘d better (do)(“最好是”)一般也当作情态动词使用,否定式是:’d better not (do). You’d better sit here and say nothing.(你最好坐在这儿不讲话)/ You’d better not speak because he is sleeping.(你最好不要讲话因为他正在睡觉)

2、动词词形变化一览表:

(1)规则动词变化表:

 

则变

原形动词结尾情况

现在时单三人称

过去式和过去分词

一般情况

+s

+ing

+ed

s,x,ch,sh,o结尾

+es

+ing

+ed

辅音字母+y结尾

yi,+es

+ing

yi,+ed

重读闭音节一元一辅结尾

+s

双写辅音字母,+ing

双写辅音字母,+ed

不发音的e结尾

+s

去掉e,+ing

+d

ie结尾

+s

iey,+ing

+d

不规则变

havehasbeis

()  

(见不规则动词变化表)

注意:①在加inged时动词如果以“r”结尾,尾音节又重读的动词,r”应双写。

s/es的读音规则:在清辅音后读[s];在浊辅音后和元音后读[z];在[ s ][ F][z][tF][dV]后读[iz].

ed的读音规则:在清辅音后读[t];在浊辅音后和元音后读[d];在[t][d]后读[id].

(2)不规则动词变化表:( 原形 过去式 过去分词)

3be(“是/存在”)动词的各种时态变化:

I am….

You are.…

He/She/It is….

We/You/They are….

(I等各人称) will be….

I am               

He/She/It is        going to be… 

We/You/They are

I have been….

You have been….

She/he/It has been….

We/You/They have been….

I was….

You were.…

He/She/It was….

We/You/They were….

(I等各人称) would be….

I was        

He/She/It was        going to be…

We/You/They were

I had been….

You had been….

She/he/It had been….

We/You/They had been….

注意:句型变化时,

否定句在am /is /are /will /have /has /was /were /had /would 后面加not,而且not都可以缩写为n’t (am后面not不可以缩写)

疑问句将am /is /are /will /have /has /was /were /had /would 提前到句首。

 

4、其它动词(主动语态)时态变化一览表

现在  时态

谓语动词构成

动词用原形(单三加s / es)

(问句和否定句借用助词do / does)

am

is     +动词-ing

are

will + 动词原形

am

is     +going to+动词原形

are

have +过去分词

has

过去  时态

谓语动词构成

动词用过去式

(问句和否定句借用助词did)

was

       +动词-ing

were

would + 动词原形

was

+going to+动词原形

were

had +过去分词

 

        基 本 型

1. The box is light. Wang Pin can _____ it by herself.           (1999北京)

A. find        B. watch          C. carry          D. learn

2. My parents ______ about 1000 yuan for my school education each year.

A. spend      B. take           C. cost           D. pay

(1999天津)

3. –It’s very cold outside.

  -Oh, yes. You’d better _____ your coat.

A. put on      B. put away      C. put back        D. put up

4. Why not ______ that blue dress? The colour is beautiful.   (1999河北)

A. get on      B. try on        C. take off         D. turn off

5. David’s always the winner of the race, but this time he ______ others. (1999山西)

A. fell behind   B. fell down    C. fell over       D. fell off

6. I learned to _____ a bicycle when I was a boy.              (1999内蒙古)

A. drive       B. run        C. ride          D. operate

7. I like writing to my penfriends, but it ______ a lot of time.    (1999辽宁)

A. spends      B. uses       C. takes        D. pays

8. The ticket is on the floor. Please ______.                  (1999吉林)

A. pick up it    B. pick up them  C. pick it up   D. pick them up

9. Jack likes to _____ others but never writes to them.         (1999江西)

A. hear of       B. hear about      C. hear from     D. hear

9.   

(1999济南)

–How long may I _____ this book?

-No more than three weeks.

A. borrow       B. keep          C. lend         D. had

        提 高 型

(1999天津)

 

1. –Can I _____ your bike?

  -With pleasure. But you mustn’t _____ it to others.

A. lend; borrow  B. borrow; lend   C. carry; lend   D. borrow; keep

2. How long have you _____ away from China?            (1999兰州)

A. left         B. been         C. gone         D. come

(1999山西)

3. –Will you please _____ us a story, Miss Gao?

  -OK, shall I _____ it in English or in Chinese?

A. tell; speak    B. talk; speak    C. tell; say      D. talk; say

4. It _____ here, on this card, that it was used in plays.    (1999呼和浩特)

A. speaks      B. writes         C. says        D. tells

5. Stamps are used for ______ letters.                 (1999宁夏)

A. writing     B. receiving       C. sending      D. selling

(1999昆明)

6. –How much did the woolen sweater ______?

  -One hundred and twenty yuan.

A. spend on    B. pay for       C. cost         D. take

7. The boy keeps on ____ English. Now he can ____ us stories in English. (2001汕头)

A. speaking; tell  B. talking; talk  C. say; speak   D. speak; say

8. Oh dear! The radio is making so much noise. Will you _____?        (2000汕头)

A. turn it up     B. put it up     C. turn it off     D. put it off

9. –Lucy, where are you going?

  -I’m going to Mary’s house. Today is her birthday. I’m going to _____  (2000汕头)

 her a birthday present.

A. send        B. send for     C. give         D. give back

10. I’m sorry. Mrs Bates isn’t here. May I _____ a message?            (2000汕头)

A. take        B. leave        C. give         D. bring

        综 合 型

1. It _____ me about a quarter to go to school on foot every day.      (1999哈尔滨)

A. pays       B. spends       C. costs         D. takes

2.   

(1999南京)

“Do you know the meaning of this word?”

“No. But why not ____ in your dictionary.”   

A. to look it up  B. look up it    C. to look up it    D. look it up

3.    “_____ Alice come to our bicycle trip?” “Well, I’m not sure if she will.”

A. Does       B. Will        C. Has          D. Did

4.    I like listening to music on the radio, but I can’t ______ much time _____ it.

A. pay; for     B. spend; on    C. cost; listening to   D. take; in

5.    With the help of computers, news can ______ every corner of the world swiftly(迅速地).                                             (2000上海)

A. get          B. arrive      C. reach       D. return

6.    What did the manager _____ you to ______ at the meeting.  (2000上海)

A. tell; say      B. ask; speak   C. tell; speak   D. ask; talk

7.    Your room looks dirty. Will you please _____ it clean?      (2000天津)

A. take         B. make       C. let         D. tidy

8.    I don’t like this sweater. Please ______ me another.         (2000辽宁)

A. show        B. try         C. put         D. took

9.    He always gets up early and _____ his clothes quickly in the morning. (2000重庆)

A. dresses      B. puts on      C. wears       D. has on

10.Mrs Green hasn’t got any money with her. She ___ her bag in her room.(2000重庆)

A. stayed      B. forgot        C. left        D. took

11.The teacher is so careful that he always looks over his exam exercises to _____ there are no mistakes in them.                               (2000内蒙古)

A. look up     B. make sure    C. find out     D. think about

12.We _____ carefully but we could _____ nothing.                (2000福州)

A. listened; hear   B. listened to; hear  C. hear; listen  D. heard; listen to

13.–May I _____ your bike?

-Sorry. I _____ it to Mary yesterday.

A. keep; borrowed  B. borrow; repaired  C. use; lent  D. lend; return

14.

(2000南京)

 

 

 

–I’m sorry I _____ my exercise book at home.

-Don’t forget _____ it to school tomorrow, please.

A. forgot; to take   B. left; to bring     C. forgot; to bring  D. left; to take

15.

(2002汕头)

–How long did you _____ drawing this picture?

-Five days.       

A. take           B. spend          C. pay           D. cost

16. How much does this car _____ in the USA?                      (2003汕头)

A. worth         B. cost           C. pay            D. spend

中考系列复习题-情态动词

        基 本 型

选用can, could, may, must, shall, should, will, would, can’t, mustn’t, needn’thave to

填空:

1. There is air around us, thought we ________ see it.

2. Your mother is getting better and better. You _______ worry about her.

3. You _______ play football in the busy street.

4. “_______ it be true ?.” “Yes. It _______ be true indeed.”

5. Tom _______ come to the party tonight, but I’m not sure.

6. _______ you please fetch me some water for me?

7. Young trees ________ be planted in spring.

8. “Must we hand in our exercise books today?”

“Yes, you ______.” “No, you ________.”

9. “May I take this magazine out of the reading-room?”

  “Yes, you _______.” “No, you _______.”

10. Please speak a little louder so that I _______ hear you.

        提 高 型

1. If you are not careful in the street, a car ______ hit you.            (1999杭州)

A. can            B. may          C. would            D. must

(1999西安)

2. –May I watch TV now, mum?

-No, you _____. You _____ do your homework first.

A. don’t; must     B. don’t; can’t     C. can’t; must        D. can’t; can

(1999重庆)

3. –Mr. John, we must hand in our work today, ______?

-No, you ______. But you must bring it to school tomorrow.

A. needn’t we; mustn’t               B. mustn’t we; needn’t

C. mustn’t you; mustn’t              D. needn’t we; needn’t

4. He isn’t in the school. I think he ______ be ill.                   (1999广东)

A. can                B. shall            C. must

5. Children ______ play on the road or in the street. It is dangerous.

A. may not       B. mustn’t          C. couldn’t          D. needn’t

6. Even the top students in our class can’t work out this problem, so it _____

be very difficult.                                             (1999上海)

A. may          B. must            C. can             D. need

 
7. –Can you ride a bike?

  -No, I _____.

A. may not       B. can’t            C. needn’t          D. mustn’t

(1998山东)

8. –Must I return the book this morning?

  -No, you _____. But you ______ return it before supper.

A. needn’t; must   B. mustn’t; can      C. mustn’t; may     D. can’t; need

9. You ____ to go and see the doctor right now.                     (1997湖南)

A. must          B. should           C. have           D. will

10. Don’t play with the knife. You ______ hurt yourself.              (1997山西)

A. may          B. should           C. have to         D. need

        综 合 型

1. What _____ I do for you, madam?

A. may          B. must            C. can            D. will

2. You’re made the same mistake again. How _____ you be so careless!

A. shall          B. may            C. can            D. must

3.    Peter _____ come with us this afternoon, but he isn’t very sure yet.

A. shall          B. may            C. can            D. must

4.    Don’t worry! The news _____ be true.

A. may not      B. mustn’t           C. will not         D. needn’t

5.    The traffic _____ stop when the lights are red in the street.

A. can’t         B. don’t have to      C. mustn’t         D. must

6.    –Look! It _____ be the new headmaster.

-It _____ be him. He went to Beijing yesterday.

A. can; mustn’t   B. can; can’t        C. must; can’t       D. must; may

7.    ______ I close the window? It’s so cold here.

A. Must         B. Will           C. Need             D. Shall

8.    You _____ return the bike now. You can keep it till tomorrow if you like.

A. can’t         B. mustn’t         C. needn’t          D. may not

9.    You _____ yourself about money.

A. needn’t worry  B. needn’t to worry  C. don’t need worry  D. needn’t be worry

10.Many people want to see you. _____ they wait here or outside?

A. Do           B. Will           C. Need            D. Shall

11.____ I ask your name, please?

A. Will          B. Shall          C. May             D. Must

12.You _____ do it even if you don’t want to.

A. can’t         B. mustn’t        C. have to           D. needn’t

13.I _____ like someone to take me to the museum.

A. will          B. would         C. shall             D. need

14.Look, what you have done! You _____ more careful.

A. may be       B. had to         C. should be         D. should

15.The girl in white must be a nurse, _____?

A. isn’t she      B. mustn’t she     C. may not she      D. didn’t she

16.It’s a fine day today. You _____ take a raincoat with you.          (2000重庆)

A. mustn’t       B. don’t need     C. needn’t          D. can’t

17.You _____ wash your hands before meals. It is good for your health. (2000广州)

A. may         B. can           C. have to          D. must

18.

(2000北京海淀区)

“Can you sing the song in English?”

“No, I _____.”

A. may not      B. mustn’t       C. needn’t         D. can’t

19.

(2000安徽)

–Will you stay for supper?

-Sorry, I _____. My sister is coming to see me.

A. mustn’t      B. can’t         C. needn’t         D. won’t

20.

(2000内蒙古)

–Must I return this book this afternoon?

-No, you _____. But you _____ return it before supper.

A. mustn’t; can   B. can’t; need    C. needn’t; must    D. mustn’t; may

21.

(2003汕头)

-_____ the girl be sent to hospital at once?

-No, she needn’t. She’ll be all right soon.

A. Can         B. May          C. Must          D. Will

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