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我有点懒,可是我很幸福。因为我有时时刻刻关心我的父母,时时刻刻照顾我的老婆,还有离不开我的一个漂亮的小姑娘。 对于生活,我很满足。

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(Go for it)新目标九年级英语专项复习教案、学案、讲义及练习题---非谓语动词  

2011-03-28 10:55:39|  分类: 会考复习资料 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

动词的非谓语形式:动词不做谓语时的固定形式

(1)动词的非谓语形式包括动词不定式、动名词和分词三种形式;其中分词又包含现在分词和过去分词两种形式。它们在句子中不能单独作谓语。

(2)动词不定式:

形式:动词不定式基本形式由“不定式记号to+动词原形”构成。它的否定形式只要在“to 前面加上“not”。它的疑问形式是:“wh-疑问词+to+动词原形”。*它的被动形式:“to be +过去分词”。*它的完成形式:“to have +过去分词”。

动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,即可以在句子中作主语、宾语、定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语。但不定式也保留动词的某些特征,即不定式后面可以跟宾语、表语和状语。动词不定式加上相关成分就构成不定式短语。

动词不定式可以放在谓语前句子作主语。但是通常将作主语的动词不定式或不定式短语放在谓语后面,而在主语位置用“it”作形式主语(有时在不定式的前面还会用for sb.表示不定式的逻辑主语)。如:To help animals is helping people.(帮助动物就是帮助人)/ It is very difficult (for us) to learn Chinese well.((对于我们而言)学好汉语是非常的困难)/ It took me half an hour to work out this problem.(解出这道题花了我一个小时的时间)

动词不定式可以作谓语动词(及物动词)的宾语。

[A] 及物动词+不定式一般形式:

谓语动词(vt.)

+不定式

(作宾语)

[     ]

want() / try(试图) / decide(决定) / would like(想要) / hope(希望) / love(喜爱) / learn(学会) / afford(提供) / agree(同意) / fail(失败、未能) / mean(意味着) / prefer(宁愿) / wish(希望)

+ to (do)

()

help(帮助)

to可以省略

begin(开始)/ start(开始)/hate(憎恨)

也可跟动名词,意义变化不大

forget(忘记) / remember(记得)/ like(总爱)

也可跟动名词,意义变化较大

    如:I would like to have a rest at the moment.(我现在想休息一下)/ They began to search the room for the thief.(他们开始在屋子里搜寻小偷)/ He liked to have a swim in the pool near his house.(他喜爱在靠家的水塘里面游泳)/ When did you learn to speak English?(你什么时候开始学英语的?)/ Don’t forget to close the door when you leave.(你离开时别忘了关门

[比较] He forgot to turn off the light.(他忘了关灯.) (没关)/ He forgot turning off the light.(他忘记关过灯.)(关了) / Please remember to ring me up.(记得给我打电话.)(还没打电话) / I remember calling you yesterday but you forgot.(我记得昨天给你打电话了,但是你忘记了.)(打过电话)

     [B] 及物动词+疑问词+不定式:

         谓语动词(vt.)

+wh-疑问词+不定式 (作宾语)

[说明]

tell (告诉) / show (显示) / know (知道) / ask () / find out (发现) / understand (明白) / wonder(疑惑) / learn(学会) / forget(忘记) / remember(记得) / teach sb.(教某人) / discuss(商讨)

what

    where

+   how       + to (do)

who

which

……

不定式疑问形式还可以作句子的主语、表语等。

     如:He does not know which one to take.(他不知道该选哪个)/ Tell me how to get to the station.(告诉我怎么样去火车站)/ She asked me what to do for today’s homework.(她问我今天家庭作业做什么)/ Can you teach me how to search the internet?(你能教我怎样上网吗?)

   [C] 不定式作宾语而后面又有宾语补足语时,通常用it代替作形式宾语,而不定式则后置。如: I found it not very easy to learn to ride a bike.(我发现学骑车不很容易)

动词不定式可以在句子中用作定语,放在名词或代词后面。

[A] 记住下面的一些结构:

被修饰部分    +  不定式(作后置定语)

a key

to lock the door

锁门的钥匙

              a box

to hold these things

装这些东西的箱子

give her a book

to read

给她一本书读

Is there any (+名词/代词)

to (do)?   

(做的)?

It’s  time

to go.

是走的时间了。/ 该走了。

Do you have any work

to do?

你有工作要做吗?

I’d like something

to eat.

我要点儿吃的。

I have nothing

to say.

我没有话要说。

Would you like something

to drink?

你要点儿喝的吗?

[B] 在这种情况下,如果不定式动词是不及物动词,则后面必须加介词。如:

They could not find a place to live in.(他们找不到住的地方)/ Please give me a chair to sit on.(请给我一张椅子坐坐)/ He has got a writing brush to write with.((他找到了写字的毛笔)

动词不定式可以在句子中用作状语,有下列几种情况:

[A] 放在不及物动词(come, go, stop, finish, wait等词)的后面。如:He came to see her yesterday.(他昨天来看望她)(表示来的目的)/ I stopped to have a rest.(我停下来休息一会儿)(表示停下来的目的)

[B] 放在完整的谓语之后(即“谓语+宾语”、“谓语+宾语+补语”、“动词+表语”之后)。如:We cleaned the room to let him play in it.(我们打扫了房间以便让他在里面玩)/ I opened the window to see more clearly.(我打开窗子以便看得更清楚点儿)

[C] 有时表示目的的不定式短语可以放在句首。如:To arrive there on time,I got up one hour earlier than usual.(为了按时到达,我们比平时早起了一个小时)(表示早起的目的)

[注意] stop to do stop doing的不同。如:They stopped to have a look.(他们停下来看看)(不定式作“停下来”的目的状语)/ They stopped looking out of the window and began to listen to the teahcher.(他们停止向窗外望,开始听老师讲课)(动名词作宾语,表示“停止”的内容)

动词不定式可以在句子中用作表语,限用于连系动词之后。如:My job is to keep the goal.(我的工作就是守住球门)

动词不定式可以在句子中用作复合宾语中的宾语补足语。

       (vt.)

+ 宾语 ( / )

+不定式             (作宾语补足语)

ask() / tell(关照) / teach() / want(想要) / would like(想要) / get() / help() / invite(邀请) / like(喜欢) / warn(警告) /

+sb. / sth.

+to (do)

make(使得) / let() / hear() / see() / feel(感觉) / watch(观看)/ have(使得) / help(帮助)

+sb. / sth.

+ (do)

  如:Mum asked me to help her with the cooking.(妈妈叫我帮助她做饭)/ I would like you to see my parents.(我想要你见见我的父母)/ The boss often made the workers work 14 hours a day.(老板常让工人们一天工作14小时)/ Now let me hear you play the violin.(现在让我来听你拉小提琴)

       [注意] help之后做宾补的不定式符号to可以省略;hear / see / feel / watch之后的宾补用不定式与现在分词时,含义不同,需特别注意,(参见现在分词部分)。试比较:

      I heard her crying when I walked past.(我路过时听到她正在哭)(指当时瞬间的情况)

      I sat near her and heard her sing the new song.(我坐在她附近听她新歌)(指整个过程)

   (3)动名词

动名词由动词原形加词尾“ing”构成。动名词有动词的特征,可以跟宾语,可以被状语修饰;它也有名词的特征,在句子中可以作主语、宾语(包括介词宾语)等。动名词加相关词语(宾语或状语等)构成动名词短语。

动名词可以作主语。一般可用it作形式主语而将动名词短语后移。如:Learning English all by yourself is not so easy.(自学好英语不那么容易)(=It is not so easy learning English all by yourself.)

动名词可以作宾语

[A] want / need之后用动名词时,含有被动意思。如:Your car needs reparing badly.(你的车急需修理。)(被修)My hair needs cutting.(我要理发。)(头发被理)

[B] remember / forge / stop / finish之后用动名词时,与用不定式含义不同。如:I forgot to write a letter to him.(我忘了给他写封信)(根本没写) / I forgot writing a letter to him.(我忘了给他写过信)(写了却忘了) / They stopped to look back.(他们停下来向后看)(停下的目的是向后看) / They stopped looking back.(他们停止向后看)(不向后看了)

[C] enjoy / mind / keep / hate/ go等词一般用动名词作宾语。如:Do you mind my closing the door?(把门关上你介意吗?)/ She hates travelling by air.(她讨厌坐飞机旅行)/ They went swimming every afternoon.(他们每天下午去游泳)/ I enjoy walking around the town.(我喜欢在镇上转悠)

[D] like / love / start / begin / learn后面用动名词时,与用不定式意思相近或相同。如:We began to study English when we were at primary school.(我们在小学时就开始学英语了) / We began studying English when we were at primary school. (我们在小学时就开始学英语了)

动名词可以作表语,此时特别注意不要与现在进行时混淆。如:My job is putting these parts  together.(我的事情是把这些部件拼起来) / I am putting these parts together.(正在把这些部件拼起来)

动名词与现在分词构成相同,但是含义不同,动名词主要表示事情,而现在分词则主要表示进行着的动作。如:Eating too much is not good for your health. (动名词短语,作主语) / Seeing is believing.(动名词短语,分别作主语和表语) / He ran after a moving bus and got onto it.(现在分词,作定语) / His father saw him sitting on some eggs.(现在分词,作宾补)

(4)分词: 包含现在分词和过去分词。(高中学习重点)

主要区别:现在分词一般有主动的意思或表示动作正在进行的意思;过去分词有被动或动 作已经完成的意思。分词可以有自己的宾语或状语。

分词或分词短语在句子中作定语、状语和复合宾语等。

[A] 作定语:分词作定语,一般要放在修饰的名词之前,分词短语作定语时,则要放在所修饰的名词之后。 如:I have got a running nose.(鼻涕) / The woman running after the thief shouted very loudly,Stop the thief!(跟着小偷追的妇女大喊:捉小偷!) / Yesterday I met a man called Mr. Black.(昨天我遇见了一个名叫布莱克先生的人)/ He only gave me a broken glass,so I was very angry with him.(他只给了我一个坏玻璃杯,所以我很生他的气)

[B] 现在分词可以作下列动词的宾语补足语。(参考不定式作宾语补足语)

谓语动词(vt.)

宾语

宾语补足语

keep(保持) / see(看到) /

hear(听到) / watch(注意到) / feel(感觉到)

sb./sth.

(do)ing

    如:Mum kept me working all the week.(妈妈让我一个星期都在工作)/ When I entered the room,I saw Jack eating a big pear.(我进入房间时看到杰克正在吃一只大梨子)/ In the dark I felt something very cold moving on my foot.(黑暗之中我感到有个冷的东西在我的脚上移动)

[C] 现在分词可以作状语,表示伴随情况。如:She came into the classroom,holding a pile of papers in her hand.(他走进教室,手上抓着一沓纸)/ I am very busy these days getting ready for the coming oral test.(这些日子我正忙着准备即将来到的口语考试)

[D] 过去分词可以作表语,放在连系动词后面,但要注意不要与被动语态混淆,“主系表”主要表示状态,而被动语态则表示动作。常用过去分词作表语的结构有:be worried (焦虑) / be pleased (高兴) / be tired (疲劳) / get dressed (打扮好) / get lost (迷路) / get caught (遭遇) / beome frustrated (沮丧) / become intereted in (感兴趣)等等。例略。

[E] 过去分词可以作宾语补足语。如:I had my hair cut this morning.(今天早上我让人给我理了发)(注意:have sth. done表示动作由别人来做,have done sth.则为现在完成时的结构,两个结构不可以混淆)

        基 本 型

用非谓语动词的适当形式填空:

1. The best time __________ (plant) trees is in spring.

2. Satellites are used for __________ (learn) more about the earth.

3. He finishes __________ (wash) at eight o’clock in the evening.

4. You’ve worked for 4 hours. Please stop __________ (have) a rest.

5. She often makes us __________ (do) a lot of homework after school.

6. Mother always tell me __________ (not read) in bed.

7. They asked the headmaster __________ (speak) at the meeting.

8. __________ (smoke) too much is bad for your health.

9. the baby was made __________ (laugh) by Tom.

10. Thank you for __________ (come) to see me.

用非谓语动词完成下列各句:

11. I want __________ () a film, __________ (而不是看) TV.

12. Did you see her __________________ (下了还是上了) the bus?

13. I’m thirsty. I’d like something __________ ().

14. It’s very important __________ () a foreign language well.

15. The old man found it difficult __________ (入睡).

15.The runner fell, but he quickly got up and went on __________ ().

16.Remember __________ () the lights when you leave the classroom.

17.Stop __________ (谈话), please. It’s time __________ (上课).

18.It took me two hours __________ (完成) my homework last night.

19.I spent two hours __________ () my homework last night.

        提 高 型

1. I have a lot of things _____ this weekend.                (1999上海)

A. do       B. did       C. doing      D. to do

2. You’d better _____ upstairs and tell the children_____ make so much noise.

(1999安徽)

A. go; not to             B. go; don’t

C. to go; not to           D. to go; don’t

3. Lily likes _____ the clothes of light colour.        (1999甘肃)

A. to put on  B. putting    C. to dress     D. wearing

4. It’s too late. Why _____ now?             (1999新疆)

A. not to go  B. not going   C. not go     D. don’t go

5. Please don’t forget _____ to me, will you?        (1998重庆)

A. to write              B. writing         C. write

6. When I’m tired, I enjoy _____ music.          (1999云南)

A. listening    B. listening to  C. to hear    D. hearing the

7. Linda was very sorry for being late. But the teacher’s smile made her _____ better.

A. feel        B. to feel      C. fall       D. to fall   (1998河南)

8. I heard Mother _____ with Father in the next room at ten last night. (1998重庆)

A. talk        B. talking     C. to talk     D. is talking

9. The Great Green Wall will stop the wind from _____ the earth away. (1998辽宁)

A. blow       B. to blow     C. blowing   D. blew

10. –Did the teacher tell you _____ this afternoon?        (1998河北)

   -Yes. We’ll go to visit the Science Museum.

A. to go where  B. how to do   C. what to do  D. to do what

11. We are not sure _____.                 (1998广东)

A. when to leave         B. when leave        C. when leaves

12. Meimei went _____ Kate with her Chinese.         (1997天津)

A. help        B. to help      C. helped       D. helping

13. _____ is bad for our health.               (1997河南)

A. Doing eye exercises         B. Go to bed early

C. Eating too much            D. Taking a walk

14. Wu Dong is good at _____ English.            (1997吉林)

A. speak      B. speaks      C. speaking      D. spoke

15. The old woman was _____ tired _____ go any farther.     (1998四川)

A. too; to          B. go; as             C. very; to    

16. Would you please _____ drop your shoes on the floor at night?  (2000福州)

A. not to      B. not       C. don’t        D. won’t

17. Most of the children enjoy _____ computer games.   (2000北京海淀区)

A. play       B. playing    C. played       D. to play

18.She should do her homework now. But she doesn’t feel like _____ it.

A. does       B. do        C. doing        D. to do    (2000黑龙江)

1.    Uncle Wang can make his kite _____ higher in the sky.     (2000河南)

A. fly         B. flies      C. to fly       D. flying

2.    You’d better _____ the cinema by bus.           (2000天津)

A. don’t go    B. to go      C. to go to     D. go to

        综 合 型

1. Her wish is _____ a famous singer.

A. become    B. became     C. becomes    D. to become

2. Our monitor is always ready _____ others.

A. help       B. helps       C. to help     D. helping

3. Have you decided _____ for your holidays?

A. go where   B. where to go   C. to go where  D. where go

4. Would you please _____ me a chair _____?

A. give; to sit on  B. give; to sit  C. giving; sit  D. to give; sit on

5. There id no difference between the two words. I really don’t know _____.

A. what to choose  B. which to choose  C. to choose which  D. to choose what

6. Though he had often made his sister _____, today he was made _____ by his sister.

A. cry; crying  B. crying; crying  C. cry; to cry   D. to cry; cry

7. –Why are you going shopping if you don’t _____?

  -My wife wants _____ with her.

A. want to; I go  B. want; me going  C. want to; me to go  D. want; to go

8. We are often told _____ people in trouble.

A. to smiling   B. not to smile   C. to laugh    D. not to laugh at

9. You look so tired. Why not _____ a rest?

A. stop having   B. to stop have   C. stop to have   D. to stop to have

10. What a fine day! How about _____ out for a walk?

A. go         B. to go        C. gone       D. going

11. Mary went _____ after she finished _____ her work.

A. swim; doing   B. to swim; to do  C. to swim; doing  D. swimming; to do

12. Would you mind _____ the window, please? It’s cold outside.

A. to close     B. closing      C. closed      D. close

13. A fridge is used for _____ vegetable and food cool.

A. kept        B. keeping     C. to keep      D. keeps

14. The farmers on the farm are busy _____ apples on the trees.

A. picking     B. to pick       C. pick        D. picked

15. One day when Edison was five years old, his father saw him _____ some eggs.

A. sat        B. to sit      C. sitting     D. was sitting

16. She has no paper _____.               (2000重庆)

A. to write    B. to write with  C. writing on  D. to write on

17. When class began, we stopped _____ to the teacher carefully.  (2000天津)

A. listening   B. listen      C. listens     D. to listen

18. There are so many kinds of radios in the shop. I can’t decide _____.(2000河北)

A. to buy what  B. to buy which  C. what to buy  D. which to buy

19.

(2000安徽)

–Do you often hear John _____ in his room?

-Listen! Now we can hear him _____ in his room.

A. sing; to sing  B. singing; singing  C. sing; singing  D. to sing; singing

20.I usually forget _____ the door, but I remembered _____ it when I left yesterday.

A. closing; closing  B. to close; to close  C. closing; to close D. to close; closing

21.On June 1, boys and girls are busy _____.          (2003汕头)

A. to celebrate Children’s Day          B. to celebrate Childrens’ Day

C. celebrating Children’s Day          D. celebrating Childrens’ Day

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