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我有点懒,可是我很幸福。因为我有时时刻刻关心我的父母,时时刻刻照顾我的老婆,还有离不开我的一个漂亮的小姑娘。 对于生活,我很满足。

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(Go for it)新目标九年级英语专项复习教案、学案、讲义及练习题---句子成分  

2011-03-28 11:12:15|  分类: 会考复习资料 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1

(1)名词()名词,。如:The painter painted a very nice picture. (画家画了一幅漂亮的画。) / They fought against SARS bravely. (他们勇敢地与非典搏斗。) / To see is to believe. (耳听为虚眼见为实). / Helping animals is to help people. (帮助动物就是帮助人类。)

(2)名词it,或动名词如:It is very comfortable to have a Class A seat during the long journey. (在长途旅行中能有个甲等座位简直太舒服了。) / Eating too much is bad for your health.(=It is bad for your health eating too much.) (吃得太多对你的身体不利。)

(3)中常见--(It is) nothing. (()没有什么。)/ (It) doesn’t matter. (()没有关系。) / (I) thank you. (()谢谢你。)

(4)意问句加问句,The man looks worried,doesn’t  he? (这个人看上去很着急不是吗?) / Tigers are dangerous animals, aren’t they? (老虎是危险的动物不是吗?)

(5)使句省略主Keep the keyboards clean, children. (孩子们请保持键盘的清洁。) (省略了主语) / You go there and fetch me a glass of water. (去给我弄一杯水来。)

(6)句首,二位装句there be如:Computers are made in this factory. (计算机生产于这家工厂。) / Where are they? (他们在哪儿?) / Does the boy like staying home? (这个男孩喜欢呆在家里吗?)

(7)单、复数的, 而谓语与表或宾之间没Neither Jim nor Rose has passed the exam. (JimRose都没有通过考试。) / The Chinese people are a hardworking and brave people. (中华民族是一个勤劳勇敢的民族。)

  (8)主语可以由从句充当,详见“主语”。

 

2

(1)不及物动词”、“及物动词+宾语”或“系动词+表语”等构成,说明主语所表示的人物“干什么”或“怎么样”。如:

  He travelled in space for the first time.(他首次在太空旅行。) / Who teaches you English this year?(今年谁教你们的英语?) / The pizza has gone bad. (那块烤馅饼已经变坏。) / 

(2)谓语动词必须反映出人称、单复数、时态信息,谓语动词往往由下列词语依序排列构成:[情态动词+时态助动词+语态助动词+主要动词(不一定全部出现)(动词的时态语态) 记住:谓语部分第一个动词往往是变形动词。如:

  I am sorry I am making so much noise but I have to. (对不起我发出了太大的声音但是只能这样。) / He can’t  have finished reading the 800-page-long novel. (他不可能读完了那本长达800页的小说。) / Something must be done to stop the fowl flu from spreading out. (该采取措施防止

禽流感蔓延。)

(3)谓语动词切忌用“行为动词1 + 原形动词”、“be + 原形动词”。

记住使用下列正确形式:

态动词+形动词。如:You’d better go over the lesson.(你最好复习这一课。)

shall/ will/ would+形动词。如:They should have been there once.(他们应该去过那儿。)

be+现在分词或者过去分词。如:What are you doing this evening?(今晚你打算做什么?)/ Many trees have been cut down since 1970s.(自从20世纪70年代大批树木被砍伐。)

have+过去分词。如:Many trees have been cut down since 1970s.(意思同上)

⑤一般时问句和否定句中:do/does/did+形动词。如:He does not enjoy himself very much.(他日子过的不好。)/ Did any of you see dinosaur eggs?(你们当中有谁见过恐龙蛋吗?)

⑥行为动词1+行为动词2 (不定式、动名词、现在分词、过去分词等形式)。如:He made up his mind to be a vet.(他拿定主意要做个兽医。)/ Feeling good about yourself is essential to feeling good about life.(自尊自爱是享受生活的根本。)/ They wake up the other family members, calling,Merry Christmas!(他们叫醒家庭的其他成员,呼喊着:圣诞快乐!)/ The kings of ancient Egypt had strong tombs built for themselves.(古代的埃及国王让人给他们自己修建坚固的坟墓。)

(4)不可用形容词、名词、代词、副词、介词短语等独立作谓语,必须在此之前加连系动词

(5)谓语动词单复数形式:单数形式的动词有:is,was,has,does以及“动词+s”;复数形式的动词有:are,were,have以及动词原形。其他动词不分单、复数。

谓语部分第一个动词的形式

单数形式

复数形式

一般现在时be()动词;

现在某些时态和语态的助动词be

am (单一);   are (单二);    is (单三);

are

一般过去时be()动词;

过去某些时态和语态的助动词be

was (单一);  were (单二); was;(单三)

were

一般现在时have()动词;

现在完成时态的助动词have

have (单一);  have (单二); has (单三);

have

一般现在时行为动词和助动词do

do (单一、单二); does (单三)

do

实意动词和连系动词的一般现在时动词(否定和疑问句除外)

原形动词(单一、单二);     动词+s /es (单三)

原形动词

其他各时态语态的谓语动词

单复数形式相同

记住:主语、谓语单复数必须保持一致。(参见“4、名词或代词作主语时和谓语之间的单复数的一致问题:”) Air and water is necessary to us all.(空气和水对于我们大家是必不可少的。)

(6)一般问句和反意问句的回答不使用行为动词,应该使用“是”动词、情态动词、助动词(be,will,have,do以及变形)。如The Olympic Games is held every other year, isn’t it? ----Yes, it is.(奥运会每两年举办一次,是吗?----是的。)

3宾语

(1) 由名词、代词(人称代词要用宾格)、不定式、动名词、(宾语)从句充当,表示动作的承受者是“谁”或者是“何物”。如: The angel also came to Joseph and told him the same thing.(那个天使同样来到约瑟夫面前并且告诉他同样的事情。)(代词和名词充当两个宾语) / He told me that the company could not afford to pay him so much money.(他告诉我说公司付不起他那么多的钱。)(不定式作宾语) / They enjoy watching football games so much that they often forget their lessons.(他们如此喜爱看足球以至于常常忘记了他们的功课。)(动名词作宾语) / I think to be a children’s doctor is very rewarding.(我认为当个儿童医生是很值得的。)(从句作宾语)

  (2) 只有及物动词或介词才有宾语,不及物动词没有宾语,如果涉及到事物,则必须在不及物动词后面加合适的介词。Listen to the radio. (listen不是及物动词,故加to) / Can you hear anything exciting?(你能听到什么令人兴奋的消息吗?)

  (3) 宾语一般放在及物动词或介词的后面,但是在疑问句中,如果宾语是疑问词,则宾语要放在句首。介词的宾语如果是疑问词,则可以放在介词后或句首。如:What did he see? (他看见了什么?) / What does he write a letter with? (他用什么写的信?) / With what does he write a letter? (他用什么写的信?)

(4)“动词+副词+宾语”结构中,如果宾语是代词,则代词必须放在“动”“副”之间。如:Please put the shoes away. (请把鞋子收起来。) / Please put away the shoes. (请把鞋子收起来。) / Please put them away. (请把它们收起来。)

(5) 动词后面跟双宾语时可以采用两种结构:

      ①动词+间接宾语()+直接宾语()。如:He often gives me some help. (他常常帮我。)

②动词+直接宾语+介词+间接宾语。注意,一般情况介词用to,但动词是make, buy, borrow,介词用for.如: Please make me a kite. (请给我做个风筝。)Please make a kite for me.

  (6) 在“动词+宾语+宾补”结构中,如果宾语是不定式、动名词、宾语从句,则常用it做形式宾语,而将实际的宾语移到补语后面去。如:I found the job rather difficult. (我发觉这个工作相当难做。) / I found it rather difficult to do the job.

  (7) 宾语可以由从句充当,详见句”

 

4、表语:

(1) 说明主语的身份、性质、状况等含义的成分,通常由形容词、副词、介词短语、名词、代词等充当。如:He became a doctor after he left high school.(高中毕业他当上了医生。) / The rubber wheels are over there.(橡胶轮子在那边。) / He does not feel like eating anything today because he has caught a bad cold.(他今天不想吃任何东西因为他得了重感冒。) / Who is it?(谁呀?)

(2) 表语只能放在连系动词(如:be,look,become,turn get,grow,feel,seem) 之后,对表语进行提问的句子除外。

(3) 代词做表语一般用主格,口语中常用宾。如:It’s I. (It’s me.)是我。

  (4) 只能作表语的形容词有:sorry,afraid,alone,asleep,awake,ill,well,sure,interested等等。He was terribly sorry for his carelessness.(他很为他的粗心而歉疚。) / Please make no noise here; the baby is asleep.(请不要发出响动,婴儿正熟睡呢。) / I am only interested in sitting in a boat and doing nothing at all!(我只是对独坐孤舟无所事事感兴趣。) / I am not alone in thinking so.(并非只有我才这样想的。)

(5) 表语也可以由从句充当,详见“表语从句”。

 

5、定语:

 (1) 修饰名词或代词的成分,常由形容词、名词(含所有格)、代词(物主、指示、疑问、不定)、介词短语、不定式(短语)充当,在初三阶段还学习了定语从句做定语的知识。如:Put it in the top drawer.(把它放在最上层的抽屉里。) / France and Switzerland are European countries. (法国和瑞士是欧洲国家。) / His mother and father are both college teachers.(他的父母都是大学教师。) / This is the day that I can never forget in my life.(这是我一辈子难忘的日子。)

 (2) 单词做定语时一般放在被修饰的名词前面,而且有一定的次序:

冠词/

物代

年龄/形状/

大小/温度

色彩

来源

质地/

材料

目的/

用途

被修饰的名词(中心词)

a

the

my

his

old,young,…

red,

yellow,

blue,

Chinese,

English,

American,

wooden,

woolen,

glass,

silk,

paper

meeting,

tennis,

sports,

reading,

swimming,

box,

shoes,

room,

pig

long,short,

round, square…

big, large,

small, little…

hot, cold,

warm, cool…

   (3) 时间副词(now,then,today,yesterday,...)、地点副词(here,there,back,in,out,home,...作定语时放在被修饰的名词后面。如:I could not find my way out, so I stayed there all along. (我找不到出去的路,所以就一直呆在那儿。)

 (4) 介词短语修饰名词时只能放在名词的后面:The monkey in the cage was caught yesterday. (笼子里的猴子是昨天逮着的。)

 (5) 形容词修饰复合不定代词时,往往后置。如:He remembered everything unusual. (他记得所有不寻常的事情。)

(6) 定语还可以用从句充当,详见 定语从句

(7) 注意:由于定语属于修饰性的成分,因此它常归入主语、宾语、表语之中,不作为句子的主要成分。

 

6、状语:

(1) 说明动作“何时”、“何地”、“如何”发生,或者说明形容词或副词的程度,一般由副词、介词短语、不定式、状语从句等充当。如:I was not born yesterday.(我又不是昨天才出世的娃娃。)/ For many of these families a college education was something new.(对其中的许多家庭来说,大学教育是件新事物。)/ He woke up to find his house on fire.(他醒来发现房子着火了。) / You cannot leave until your work is finished.(在你的工作被完成以前你不能离开)

 (2) 副词作状语位置较为灵活,详见《六·2》“副词在句子中的位置以及作用;介词短语作状语,位置基本固定,详见《七·4》“介词短语在句子中的位置”;不定式作状语,一般表示目的、结果,详见《八·7》“动词的非谓语形式”;从句作状语,详见《主从复合句》的“状语从句”。

   (3) 多个状语相连时,一般先单词、后短语,先地点、后时间,先小概念、后大概念。如:He went ouf of the room at a quarter to 23:00 last night and then disappeared into the dark.(昨夜223从房间里出来,然后消失在黑暗之中。) /

   (4) 状语还可以用从句来充当,有时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、目的状语从句、结果状语从句、比较状语从句、让步状语从句、条件状语从句等。详见“状语从句”。

   (5) 注意:由于状语属于修饰性的成分,常归入谓语,因此不作为句子的主要成分。

 

7、宾语补足语:

 (1) 补充说明宾语的动作、状态的成分为宾语补足语,常由名词、形容词、动词非谓语形式(不定式、现在分词、过去分词等)、介词短语等充当。如:Call him Jim,  please. (请叫他Jim) / I tried my best to make him happy. (我竭尽所能让他开心。) / Ask her to come to dinner tomorrow. (请他明天来。) / He let the smaller animals bring food to him. (他让小动物们给他带食物来。)

   (2) 部分表示位置、方向的副词也可以作宾语补足语。如:Let him in, I tell you! (我跟你说,让他进来!)/ Please put it away. (请把它收起来。)

   (3) 不定式或分词作宾语补足语的情况,详见《八·7》“语形式”相关内容。
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