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流动的光彩

岁月如水 人生是河 宽容能拯救一切

 
 
 

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关于我

我有点懒,可是我很幸福。因为我有时时刻刻关心我的父母,时时刻刻照顾我的老婆,还有离不开我的一个漂亮的小姑娘。 对于生活,我很满足。

网易考拉推荐

人教版高中英语重点单词、短语讲解 语法训练 必修一 Unit5  

2013-05-06 19:35:28|  分类: 高中英语精细学案 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

Unit 5 Nelson Mandela-a modern hero

 

核心单词

1. quality

n. U,C]质,质量,品质;特性(既可用于描述物品,也用于描述人物)

C]性质;特性;特点

Modesty is one of his good qualities.

谦虚是他的美德之一。

One quality of wood is that it can burn.

木料的一个特点是能燃烧。

常用结构:

high quality 优质

poor quality 劣质

average quality 一般的品质

Wine of high quality costs more than that of poor quality.

优质的葡萄酒比劣质的葡萄酒价格要高。

易混辨析

quality/quantity

quality 质,质量

quantity 数量;大量

For study, quality often matters more than quantity.

就学习而言,质量往往比数量更重要。

Quantities of food were on the table. 桌上摆了大量食物。

There is a small quantity of water left in the bottle.

瓶子里还剩下少量的水。

高手过招

完成句子(原创)

他仔细检查家具的品质。

He examined                                                   carefully.

他具备了一个成功商人应具有的所有品质。

He has                                   of a successful businessman.

the quality of the furniture

all the qualities

2. devote

vt.献身;专心于

常用结构:

devote oneself/one’s energy/one’s time to (doing) sth.

奉献/精力/时间于某事

sb. be devoted to (doing) sth. 某人献身做某事

He devoted all his life to China’s aviation.

他的一生都奉献给了中国的航空事业。

He’s devoted his whole life to the protection of the rare animals. 他终生献身于保护珍稀动物。

He is devoted to helping the poor. 他致力于帮助穷困的

联想拓展

类似于devote ... to ... 的结构中to为介词的词组还有:

object to 反对  attend to 办理;照顾;注意听

look forward to 期待;盼望be opposed to 反对

devote ... to 贡献给……stick to 坚持

lead to 导致pay attention to 注意到

be related to ……有关see to 务必做到; 负责……

refer to 提到;指的是turn to 翻到; 求助于

高手过招

单项填空

The idea for the new machine came to Mr Baker           to his invention. (2010·陕西师大附中月考)

A. while he was devoted               B. while devoting

C. while devoting himself              D. while devoted

解析:选A。考查be devoted to这一结构。注意不要误选D项,因为主句的主语the idea与从句的主语Mr Baker/he不一致,因此从句中的主语和谓语动词he was不能省略。

3. equal

adj.相同的;平等的

vt.等于,比得上

n.同等/相等的人或物

He asked us to cut the apple into three equal pieces.

他让我们把苹果切成三等份。

None of us can equal her in intelligence.

我们中没人能在智力方面比得上她。

常用结构:

be equal to sth./doing sth.胜任某事/ 做某事

A equals BA等于B

without equal/have no equal 无与伦比/无比

Are you equal to (doing) the task?你能胜任这项工作吗?

Yao Ming is a basketball player without equal in China.

在中国,姚明是个无与伦比的篮球运动员。

高手过招

单项填空

He doubted whether she would be           to the task. (原创)

A.   equal    B. similar    C. familiar     D. content

解析:选Abe equal to sth. 胜任,符合句意。content意为满意的,满足的不符句意,其他选项也均与句意不符。

4. reward

n.报答;酬金(为某些特殊服务提供或给予的金钱)

vt.酬谢,奖赏;报应;惩罚(坏人或坏事)

常用结构:

as a reward (for) 作为(对某事的)报酬(或奖赏)

give/ offer a reward to sb. for sth. 为某事而给某人报酬

in reward for 为酬答……;作为奖励……

reward sb.(with ...)for sth. 为某事(而以……)报答……

易混辨析

                              reward/award/prize

reward表示奖赏,酬谢,动词只能以人或人的行为作宾语,名词表示某人因做了某事而应得到某东西。

award 作名词指正式或官方 给予,颁发,授予(奖章,奖金等),也可以指法庭裁决;作动词时可以跟两个宾语,award sb. sth.把某物授予/判给某人。

prize只能作名词,表示奖赏、奖金、奖品,尤指在比赛中获得的荣誉。

It’s a reward for virtue.那是对美德的回报。

It is unfair that he gets very little in reward for his hard work. 他工作很辛苦,报酬却很少,这不公平。

How can I reward your kindness?

我如何酬谢你的好意呢?

Jim rewarded the boy a pound for bringing back the lost dog.

男孩把吉姆丢失的狗带了回来,为此吉姆奖赏给他一英镑。

高手过招

单项填空

Martin Luther King, a great Black leader in the movement against racial discrimination, was             the Nobel Prize for peace for his outstanding contribution to world peace. (2010·11·河南洛阳月考)

A. rewarded      B. given         C. awarded       D. offered

They               the winners with gifts of fruit and flowers.         (原创)

A. rewarded      B. awarded    C. charged        D. paid

The girl got nothing in            for her kindness, which made her very sad.

A. prize               B. award      C. medals      D. reward

解析:选C。句意为:反对种族歧视运动的杰出黑人领袖马丁·路德·金,因其对世界和平的突出贡献而被授予诺贝尔和平奖。award指正式或官方的授予,颁发

解析:选A。考查固定搭配。句意为:他们送给获胜者水果和鲜花作为奖赏。reward sb.  with ...……酬劳某人。

解析:选D。由句意可知,应该是对做好事的报答。in reward for ……而报答。

重点短语

5. out of work

失业

Jim has been out of work for several months.

吉姆已经失业几个月了。

Mary’s cell phone has been out of work for several days, which brought her a lot of inconvenience.

玛丽的手机坏了好几天了,这给她带来了很多不便。

联想拓展

in work有工作

out of breath上气不接下气

out of patience 不耐烦

out of use 没用了

out of date过时

out of order次序颠倒;出故障

out of control失控

out of danger脱离危险

out of shape变形

Out of sight, out of mind.眼不见, 心不烦。

高手过招

用适当的介词(短语)填空(原创)

Although my computer is           date now, it's still          use.

After the fourth operation, the patient has been         danger.

out of; in  out of

6. as a matter of fact 

事实上

It was cold. As a matter of fact, it was freezing.

天很冷。事实上,冷得要命。

联想拓展

as a matter of fact=in fact/in actual fact/actually/in

reality/to tell the truth 实际上;事实

to make matters worse 让事情更糟糕的是

it doesn’t matter 没有关系

高手过招

单项填空

It rained that day.             , our car broke down on the way. (2010·江苏泰州一轮检测)

A. In fact                                   B. Actually

C. To make matters worse       D. To tell the truth

解析:选Cto make matters worse让事情更糟糕的是。根据句

意可知,C项符合。

7. blow up

vi.爆炸;突然严峻;大发雷霆

vt. 炸毁;给……充气;放大(照片)

My father blew up when I didn't come home last night.

我昨晚没回家,父亲大发雷霆。

Stop at the gas station and we'll blow up the tyres.

在加油站停一下,我们要给轮胎打气。

联想拓展

blow away刮走,吹走

blow down() 刮倒

blow off 吹掉;将(热水、蒸汽等)放出

blow out 吹熄;(电线)烧断

blow over (暴风雨等)吹散,刮倒;(坏天气)大风平息

高手过招

单项填空

A short circuit will            the fuse(保险丝). (原创)

A. blow up                B. blow off

C. blow out               D. blow over

解析:选C。句意为:短路会烧断保险丝。根据句意可知,答案选C

8. in trouble

在危险、受罚、痛苦、忧虑等的处境中

Please telephone us when you are in trouble.

遇到困难时就给我们打电话。

联想拓展

have trouble (in) doing sth. 做某事有困难。其中的介词 in 在口语中通常可省略。

take (the) trouble to do sth. 在这一结构中,其中的冠词用不用均可,但含义稍有不同:用冠词,表示不怕费事或不怕麻烦而去做某事;不用冠词,表示尽心尽力或费尽心血而去做某事。

go to (the) trouble to do of doing sth.

不辞辛劳做某事/费心做某事

give sb.  trouble/put sb.  to trouble麻烦某人;打扰某人

have trouble with ... ……病痛;同……闹纠纷

We had no trouble (in) finding his office.

我们没费吹灰之力就找到了他的办公室。

He took the trouble to show me the way to the station.

他不嫌麻烦地为我去火车站而指路。

He went to the trouble of finding out when our train was leaving.

他费心为我们打听到了我们乘坐的火车的开车时间。

I don’t like giving trouble to people I don’t know.

我不愿意给我不认识的人添麻烦。

The man often has trouble with his wife.

这个男人经常与他的妻子闹矛盾。

高手过招

单项填空

Even an experienced climber can            to reach the summit.

(2010·河南郑州一轮检测)

A. get into trouble              B.  make trouble

C.   ask for trouble              D.  take trouble over

解析:选A。句意为:即使是一个很有经验的登山者,想要到达顶峰也有可能遇到困难。句中的can表示有可能get into trouble 陷入困境,因做某事而招致惩罚,危险等;ask for trouble 自找麻烦,自讨苦吃;make trouble 引起麻烦;take trouble over sth. 在某事上费心思。根据句意选A

9. turn to

求助于;依赖;翻到;询问

We have to turn to some bigger companies for technical help.

我们不得不向一些更大的公司寻求技术援助。

联想拓展

turn against背叛

turn down(音量)关小;拒绝

turn in上交

turn ...into ...(使……)成为……

turn off关掉(水源、 煤气、电灯等);避开(问题等)

turn on打开(水、 煤气、电灯、无线电等)

turn over(使)打翻/翻身/翻动/翻耕(土地)/转危为安

turn up开大;出现;找到

by turns轮流;交替

in turn依次;轮流

turn out证明是;结果是

Nobody will turn against his country.

没有人会背叛自己的国家。

Please turn down the television.

请把电视机的音量调小点儿。

He turned down my suggestion without hesitation.

他毫不犹豫地拒绝了我的建议。

The child picked up a purse and turned it in to the policeman.

那个孩子捡到了一个钱包,然后把它交给了警察。

The farmers are turning waste land into rice fields.

农民们正把荒地变成肥沃的田地。

Don't forget to turn all the lights off before you go to bed. 

在你上床之前,不要忘记把所有的灯都关上。

The man turned over and went to sleep again when the telephone rang.

当电话铃响的时候,那个人翻了个身,又睡着了。

高手过招

(1)单项填空

In the new city there wasn’t a single person         the poor boy could turn for help.(2010·辽宁本溪月考)

A. that                          B. who

C. from whom              D. to whom

We had a good many anxious moments, but everything      all right in the end.(2010·江苏南京一轮)

A. turned down             B. turned on

C. turned out                 D. turned to

(1)解析:选Dturn to sb. for help为固定搭配,意思是求助于某人。

解析:选Cturn out 在句中的意思是变得;证明是;结果是,为连系动词;turn down调低;拒绝;turn on打开;turn to参考;转向;求助于。

(2)用与turn搭配的适当介词填空(原创)

The key you lost has turned           .

Nothing could make the brave man turn        his motherland.

Don't rush. Please wait in line and get on the bus          turn.

He asked his teacher to give him the chance one more time but his teacher turned him          .

Be sure to turn the lights        when you leave the classroom.

(2)up against in down off

10. lose heart

丧失勇气或信心

He failed many times, but he didn’t lose heart.

他失败了许多次,但他并没有失去信心。

No matter what you do, never lose heart.

不管你做什么,千万不要失去信心。

lose one’s job失业

lose one’s balance失去平衡

lose one’s breath上气不接下气

lose one’s heart (to sb./sth.)爱上

lose one’s life丧生; 遇害

lose face丢脸; 受屈辱

lose hope失去希望

高手过招

翻译句子

不要失去信心,一切都会好起来的。

   

她喜欢上了一位年轻士兵。

Don’t lose heart, all will turn out well. 

She lost her heart to a young soldier.

重点句型

11. ...only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.……只有到这个时候,我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。

only 修饰的时间、条件、方式状语等放在句首时,主句要用部分倒装。

Only then did she realize she had made mistakes.

直到那时她才意识到她所犯的错误。

Only when he came back did I go to bed.

当他回来的时候,我才上床睡觉。

温馨提示

only 放在句首修饰状语时,主句部分要倒装,修饰主语、宾语时,则不倒装。

Only you understand me.只有你了解我。

高手过招

单项填空

I failed in the final examination last term and only then         the importance of studies.(2010·山东青岛二中月考)

A. I realized                      B. I had realized

C. had I realized               D. did I realize

解析:选Donly then位于句首时句子用倒装结构,realize的动作在fail之后发生,故选过去时。

12. He taught us during the lunch breaks and the evenings when we should have been asleep.

他在午餐后的休息时间以及晚上本来该睡觉的时间教我们学习。

should have done 本应该做某事(但实际上并没有做)/对过去已发生的事情的推测。ought to= should 但在语气上比should要强。

温馨提示

情态动词+have done的用法小结:

must+have done 表示对过去情况的推测,只用于肯定句中,意为一定……”,其否定的意义用can’t+have done表示。

can/could have done 对过去已发生的情况的推测,用于疑问句或否定句中。

could+have done本来有能力做而实际上没有做

needn’t+have done本来不必做的事,实际上却做了

might have done本来可以做而实际上未做。

may (might)+have done表示对过去的推测,多用在陈述句,意为也许;可能……”。用might 比用 may 语气更加委婉。

would+have done 用于虚拟条件句中,表示与过去事实相反。

He ought not to have taken the old clothes away.

他不该把旧衣服带走。(事实上已带走。)

The street is wet.  It must have rained last night.

路面是湿的,昨天晚上肯定下雨了。

If I could have stopped, there wouldn’t have been an accident.

如果我能够停下来,事故就不会发生了。

I needn’t have gone to the office yesterday.

昨天我没必要去办公室。

Please don’t do that.  You might both have been caught and killed!

请不要那样做。你们俩很有可能被抓住然后被杀掉!

易混辨析

                             should/ought to

两者均有应该之意,should多表示说话人主观建议,ought to多表示道义和责任。

Doctors and nurses should take good care of patients.

医生和护士应该仔细照顾病人。

You shouldn’t drink and drive.

你不该喝了酒还开车。

You ought to be blushed at your conduct.

你应该为你自己的行为感到羞愧。

两者均可表示预测,意为应该会,可能

We should/ought to arrive there before dark.

我们应该会在天黑前到达那里。

It’s twelve o’clock now. She should/ought to have already got there.

现在已经12点了。她应该已经到那里了。

联想拓展

should的其他用法:

虚拟从句中,表示假如;万一

If you should change your mind, do let we know.

如果你想要改变主意,让我们知道。

In case you should need any help, here is my number.

假如你需要任何帮助,给我打电话,这是我的电话号码。

应该,必须

She recommended that/she (should) take some time off.

她建设应该休假。

表示惊讶,遗憾。

It’s strange that she should have done such a thing.

她能做好这样的事情,真让人觉得奇怪。

高手过招

单项填空

—I missed the first part of the film. It was really a pity.

—You       home half an hour earlier.(2010·福建厦门一轮检测)

A. should have left                B. must have left

C. should leave                     D. must leave

—Do you think he is lazy?

—I             so once, but I don’t now.(2010·浙江杭州一轮检测)

A. may have thought            B. can have thought

C. may think                         D.  might think

解析:选A。第一句句意为:我错过了这部电影的第一部分,真遗憾。根据第一句,答句的句意应为:你本应该提前半小时出家门。故选A

解析:选A。从答语可知,空格处的意思是曾经这样想过,即对过去情况作推测,故应用情态动词+动词完成时;又因为 can 表推测时不用于肯定句中,故选A

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