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我有点懒,可是我很幸福。因为我有时时刻刻关心我的父母,时时刻刻照顾我的老婆,还有离不开我的一个漂亮的小姑娘。 对于生活,我很满足。

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人教版高中英语重点单词、短语讲解 语法训练 必修二 Unit4  

2013-05-06 19:41:58|  分类: 高中英语精细学案 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit 4   Wildlife protection

 

核心单词

1. decrease

v. 减少;(使)变小;变少

n. 减少;降低;减少的数量,其后常接介词in/of

联想拓展

decrease  (sth.) to/by ... 减少到/……

increase vi.&vt. 增加;增长;增强

               n.增加;增加的数量

increase to/by ...增加到/……

on the decrease/increase 在减少/增加

易混辨析

reduce/decrease

reduce  强调在数量、大小,程度或强度方面下降或减少。

decrease 侧重强调稳定地,逐渐地,不断地减少。

They are making every effort to decrease the production cost. 他们正在尽力降低生产成本。

The membership decreased to 150.

会员数减少到了150人。

The number of students in the class has decreased by 20.

班级里的人数减少了20人。

There has been a decrease in our imports.

我们的进口数量减少了。

高手过招

完成句子                                                                        (原创)

这些措施将有助于降低生产成本。

                        will help            the cost of production.

人口出生率正在下降。

The birthrate is                                   .

答案:These measures; decrease

on the decrease

 

2. suggest

vt. 建议;提出(意见、计划、理论等);暗示;表明

常用结构:

suggest+doing         建议做……

suggest sb./sb.’s doing sth.

建议某人做某事(不说suggest sb. to do sth.

suggest sth. to sb.  

向某人提议…… (不能说suggest sb. sth.

suggest (to sb.)+that从句(向某人)建议。(所接从句用虚拟语气:sb.+should+动词原形,should可以省略)

It is suggested that ...  建议是……

suggest sth. 暗示;表明……

suggest+that从句暗示;表明……(从句用陈述语气)

suggest sth. to sb.  使某人想起……

I suggest doing it in another way.

我建议换一种方式做这件事。

They suggested another shop to us.

他们向我们建议了另一家商店。

She suggested that weshouldhave lunch at the new restaurant.

她建议我们在那家新开的餐馆吃午餐。

Her expression suggested that she had told a lie.

她的表情表明她撒了谎。

温馨提示

suggestion, advice, proposal建议讲时,相关的名词性从句要用虚拟语气。

My suggestion is that we (should) go to the cinema together.我建议我们一块儿去看电影。(表语从句)

It’s suggested that you (should) stay here for another week.建议你在这儿再待一个星期。(主语从句)

He gave me an suggestion that I should go to Shanghai for a holiday.他建议我去上海旅游。(同位语从句)

高手过招

单项填空

His suggestion          to see the art exhibition interested everyone of us.                            2009·12·山东潍坊检测)

A. that we go                 B. which we should go 

C. that we would go     D. we should go

 解析:选A。不管是suggest的何种形式,在句子中有建议之意时,后接的从句必须用虚拟语气。

3. affect

vt. 影响;侵袭;相当于;使感动;激起(悲伤、愤怒、爱等情绪)

易混辨析

affect/effect/influence

    affect vt.表示影响,(病)侵袭,多指不好的影响。当affect的宾语是人时,它表示引起心智或感情上的影响,即使……感动

    effect 表示影响时,是名词,指由于某种原因直接产生的结果,常用短语为:have an effect on……有影响;in effect正在实行;实际上;side effect副作用;take effect开始实行;开始生效;without effect没有效果;come into effect生效;实施;bring/carry sth. into effect使……生效;be of no effect 无效果。

influence多指对人的思想、观念、心理情绪等内在的东西产生潜移默化的影响,或对人的决定、行为等造成某种程度的影响。

The disease is beginning to affect her brain.

疾病逐渐侵袭她的大脑。

We are deeply affected by his devotion to work.

他对工作的奉献令我们深受感动。

The book had a great influence on his life.

这本书对他的人生影响很大。

He is, in effect, my rival. 实际上,他是我的竞争对手。

高手过招

单项填空

Sichuan province           by the earthquakecausing difficulties to the postfestival road transport.         2009·11·陕西西安检测)

A. were affected          B. was affected

C. had effected            D. has affected

 解析:选Baffect 为动词,意思是影响;感动effect为名词,意思是影响;效果。根据句意选择B

4. appreciate

vt.欣赏;感激;意识到;体会;理解

appreciate后可接名词、代词、动名词、名词性从句等作宾语,但不能接不定式。表示感激,感谢时,其后的宾语只能为,不能为。其后不直接跟ifwhen引导的从句,若语义上需要接这类从句,需借助it,即:appreciate it if/when ...

易混辨析

appreciate/thank

appreciate 意为感激,感谢时的结构为:

     appreciate (doing) sth.

     appreciate it if/when ...

thank表示感谢时的结构为:thank sb. for sth.

I appreciate your ability very much.

我很欣赏你的能力。

We shall appreciate hearing from you again.

能再次收到你的来信,我们将十分感激。

I appreciate that you have come here so early.

感谢你来得这么早。

I would appreciate it very much if you would help me with it.如果你能帮助我做这件事,我将不胜感激。

高手过招

单项填空

I really appreciate             to relax with you on this nice island.

A. to have had time             B. having time

C. to have time                    D. to having time

解析:选B。考查appreciate的搭配。此处appreciate意为欣赏,其后不能接动词不定式作宾语,而只能用名词或动名词形式。

5. mercy

n. 仁慈;宽恕;宽容;恩惠;幸运;怜悯

常用结构:

at the mercy of sb./sth.    任由某人(某事物)摆布或控制

have mercy on/upon        ……有怜悯心

show mercy to sb.           宽恕/怜悯某人

without mercy                 毫不留情地;残忍地

They showed mercy to their enemies.

他们对敌人很仁慈。

It’s a mercy she wasn’t hurt in the accident.

她在事故中未受伤, 真幸运。

高手过招

翻译句子                                                                     (原创)

那只船在暴风雨中失去了控制。

可怜可怜我们吧!

答案:The ship was at the mercy of the storm.         

Have mercy on us!

 

6. hunt

vi.&vt.打猎,猎取;搜索

Wolves hunt in packs.

狼是成群猎食的。

Police are hunting an escaped criminal.

警方正在追捕逃犯。

常用结构:

hunt for             试图找到(某人/)

hunt after          探求;追求

答案:I’m hunting for a lost book.

Many people hunt after fame all their lives but never find it.

 

7. include

vt. 包括;包含

include侧重指范围,其主语和宾语属于同类,是整体与部分的关系。后面常接名词、代词、动名词作宾语。

The trip includes a visit to Beijing.

旅行包括到北京参观。

联想拓展

contain vt. 表示包含,含有;能容纳,侧重指内容或成分,其主语和宾语不属于同类。

This fruit contains a lot of vitamins.

这个水果含有丰富的维他命。

hold vt. 表示容纳;盛有……”;表示里面装有……”时可与contain互换。

This room can hold 50 people.这间屋子能容纳50人。

高手过招

(1)include的适当形式填空

Our group has ten students, Tom          .

We will learn 7 subjects this term,                 PE.

(2)单项填空

   Even if they didn’t          the cost of food in the tour, it’s still a cheap vacation to the U.S.

A.   Hold     B. contain       C. share      D. Include

解析:(1)included  including

(2) D。根据句意可知用包括。而contain多用来强调所包含的内容本来就是物体固有的一部分。

重点短语

8. die out

灭绝;逐渐消失;灭亡

联想拓展

die for渴望;很想

die to do 渴望;很想

die away(尤指声音、光、风)逐渐消失;停止

die down (兴奋、激动等情绪)渐弱;渐息;平息

die off (家族,种族等)相继死亡;(草木)枯死

die from/of ……而死;通常由疾病、饥寒、情感原因造成的死亡用die of,除此之外的原因用die from

Many species will soon die out if we don’t take action.

如果我们不采取行动,许多物种将很快灭绝。

Many old customs have died out.

许多旧的风俗已不复存在。

高手过招

(1)单项填空

This kind of plants are          . Some day they

 will       forever.                       2009·12·甘肃天水检测)

A. dying offdie out

B. dying awaydie off

C. dying downdie out

D. dying outdie away

Unfortunately, the soldier died         a wound in the chest.                                        2009·12·山东德州检测)

A. from                   B. out

C. off                      D. down

(2)die的相关短语填空                                         (原创)

The noise of the car                 in the distance.

The old traditions are               .

The man            a wound.

I’m              something to eat.

解析:(1)A。前面句子用了进行时,表示正在灭亡,故用die off。后面表示有一天会永远消失,故用die out

A。根据句意此处soldier死的原因应该是胸部受伤。

(2)died away  dying out  died from

dying for

9. protect ...from ...

保护……免受……,后接较小的事情或危害,如:frost, harm, catching cold

联想拓展

protect ...against ...后接较大的事情,如:战争、灾害、重税、威胁等。

keep sb. from doing sth. prevent/stop sb.(from) doing sth.阻止某人做某事

keep sb. doing sth.使某人一直做某事

defend ...from/against保卫……以抵御……

易混辨析

              defend/protect/guard/preserve

    defend 保卫;防护;防守(含有采取措施抵制进攻的意思);protect 常含有提供安全的方式来驱开不适、伤害或进攻的意思;guard 含有看守的意思;preserve 指采取措施维护、保护、保存。

You must learn to protect yourself from the danger.

你必须学会保护自己,免遭危险。

She had to defend herself against the guard dog.

她不得不防备看门狗咬她。

A policeman was guarding the entrance to the embassy.

一位警察正守卫在大使馆出口处。

It is one of the duties of the police to preserve public order.警察的职责之一是维持公共秩序。

高手过招

单项填空

Use the umbrella to      yourself from the rain.     (原创)

A. prevent                         B. protect         

C. defend                          D. protection

 解析:选Bprevent sb. from doing sth.防止某人干某事,意思类似于stop/keep sb. from doing sth.protect sb. from sth.保护某人免遭伤害;defend保卫;防护;防守(含有采取措施抵制进攻的意思)。

10. pay attention to

注意

联想拓展

bring sth. to one’s attention 使某事引起某人注意

call/draw one’s attention to sth. 使某人注意某事

draw/catch/attract one’s attention 引起某人的注意

fix/focus/concentrate one’s attention on sth.

集中注意力于某事物

You should pay attention to your spelling.

你要注意自己的拼写。

高手过招

完成句子                                                           (原创)

他的提议没有引起任何注意。

No attention                                    his advice.

他提醒我注意一些新的证据。

He                                     some new evidence.

答案:was paid to

called/drew my attention to

11. come into being

形成;产生(不可用于被动语态或进行时)

联想拓展

come into existence 形成;产生;开始存在

come into effect/force/operation开始生效;开始实施

come into use 开始被使用

come into power上台执政

come into fashion 开始流行

come into office 就职

come into action 开始行动

We do not know when this world came into being.

我们不知道世界是何时形成的。

高手过招

单项填空

Before the computer          , people could never imagine it could bring about such great changes to human life.                   2009·12·福建龙岩一中检测)

A. came into being         B. was discovered

C. was come into being   D. was formed

解析:选A。句意为:在电脑出现之前,人们绝不会想到它会给人类的生活带来如此巨大的变化。电脑不能说是被发现被形成的,排除BD两项。come into being不能用于被动语态和进行时,排除C项,故选A

重点句型

12. Why are they in danger of disappearing?

它们为什么处于灭绝的危险中?

常用结构:

in danger (of)       在危险中

be in danger of    ……的危险

be out of danger  脱离危险

The girl’s life was obviously in immediate danger.

很明显,这女孩的生命危在旦夕。

The sick man is in danger of death. 这位病人有死亡的危险。

The wounded policeman is now out of danger.

受伤的警察已脱离危险。

联想拓展

be a danger to sb./sth. 危险的人/因素

be dangerous for ……有危险

endanger vt. 危害,危及

endangered adj. 有危险的;濒临灭绝的

高手过招

完成句子

他再这样下去会丢掉工作的。

He is                              losing his job if he goes on like this.

警察说这个男人对于公众来说是个危险分子。

The police said the man was                             the public.

答案: in danger of  a danger to

13. They lived on the earth tens of millions of years ago, long before humans come into being.

千百万年前,恐龙就在地球上生活,比人类的出现要早得多。

long before ...……之前很长一段时间

I knew the news that they were invited to the party, long before you told me.

早在你告诉我之前很久我就知道他们被邀请来参加晚会的消息了。

答案:They had known each other long before I knew them.

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