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流动的光彩

岁月如水 人生是河 宽容能拯救一切

 
 
 

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我有点懒,可是我很幸福。因为我有时时刻刻关心我的父母,时时刻刻照顾我的老婆,还有离不开我的一个漂亮的小姑娘。 对于生活,我很满足。

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人教版高中英语重点单词、短语讲解 语法训练 必修四 Unit2  

2013-05-06 20:29:25|  分类: 高中英语精细学案 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 Working the land

核心单词

1. struggle

v.挣扎;努力;拼搏;斗争

n. (为争取自由、政治权利等而进行的)斗争,奋斗

常用结构:

struggle with与……斗争

struggle for 为争取……而斗争

struggle against与……斗争;为反对……而斗争

struggle to do sth. (=make great efforts to do sth.)

努力做某事

struggle to one’s feet 挣扎着站起来

She struggled to keep back the tears. 她努力忍住泪水。

It was a hard struggle to get my work done on time.

为使工作按时完成, 我做了一番努力。

易混辨析

struggle/fight

struggle指较长时间的、激烈的斗争,往往指肉体及精神上的战斗。

fight意为“搏斗,打斗,打架”,表示“斗争”时,包含体力和勇猛的因素。

高手过招

(1)单项填空

The working people have never stopped their struggle                  unfair treatment.                ( 2010·01·山西太原五中检测)

  A. against       B. for      C. from      D. to

(2)完成句子                                                               (原创)

①我们应当帮助那些仍在为独立而斗争的人们。

We should help those who are still                               .

②他们得和各种各样的困难作斗争。

They had to                                                          .

 

(1)解析:选A。struggle against意为“同……作斗争”;struggle for意为“为了……而斗争”。

(2)①struggling for independence

②struggle with/against all kinds of difficulties

2. expand

v.扩大;扩展;增加;增长;(使)膨胀;阐述;使变大

常用结构:

expand...into...将……扩展/发展成……

expand on 阐述;详谈

He is thinking of expanding his business.

他在正考虑扩大他的生意。

In ten years the city’s population expanded by 12%.

十年之中,该市人口增加了百分之十二。

联想拓展

expansion n. 展开;膨胀;扩展

expansive adj. 广阔的;易膨胀的

易混辨析

expand/extend/spread/stretch

       expand 意为“展开,扩大”,不仅指尺寸的增加,还可指范围和体积的扩大。

       extend 意为“伸出,延伸”,指空间范围的扩大,以及长度,宽度的向外延伸,也可指时间的延长。

       spread 意为“传播;蔓延;铺开”。一般指向四面八方扩大传播的范围,如传播(疾病),散布(信息)等。

       stretch 意为“伸展(身体等),拉长;连绵”,一般指由曲变直,由短变长的伸展,不是加长。

高手过招

选词填空(expend/extend/spread/stretch)(原创)

①The fire soon          to the nearby houses.

②The tourist season           from May till October.

③A balloon           when it is blown up.

④The cat           out in front of the fire.

答案:①spread  ②extends  ③expands   ④stretched

3. equip

vt. & vi. 配备;装备

常用结构:

equip sb./sth. with 用……武装某人;用……装备某物

equip sb./sth. for 为……而武装某人;为……而装备某物

a piece of office equipment  一件办公设备

They equipped themselves for the expedition.

他们为远征准备装备。

A good education should equip you for life.

良好的教育能使你受用终生。

高手过招

(1)单项填空

All classes of this school are       with modern              (原创)

A. equipped; equipment     B. equipped; equipments

C. equipping; equipments  D. equipping; equipment

(2)完成句子                                                         (原创)

①The soldiers were well  (装备)                    weapons.

②This library                              (为……而装备) atomic research.

③Our classroom                               (装备有) a computer and a tape recorder.

(1)解析:选A。equip ...with ...意为“用……装备……”,被动形式为be equipped with。第二空equipment意为“装备;设备”,是不可数名词。

(2) ①equipped with ② is equipped for

③ is equipped with

4. regret

vt.& vi. 后悔;遗憾

n. 遗憾;懊悔

常用结构:

regret doing= regret having done=regret to have done 

后悔做了某事

regret to do遗憾将要做某事

regret to say/tell/inform  遗憾地说/告诉/通知

much to one’s regret 深感遗憾

with regret 遗憾地

Tom regretted telling his parents the thing.

汤姆后悔告诉了父母那件事。

I regretted to tell you you hadn’t passed the driving test.

我很遗憾地告诉你你没有通过驾驶考试。

He told me with regret that he couldn’t come to the party.

他很抱歉地对我说他不能参加这个聚会了。

He gave up teaching in 1998, much to his students regret.

他于1998年放弃了教学,这使他的学生很遗憾。

高手过招

(1)单项填空

They failed to pass the exam last time. I regretted    them.                                   (2010·01·江西赣州质量检测)

A. to be not able to help        B. not being able to help

C. being not able to help       D. not be able to help

 

(2)用括号内所给单词的适当形式填空                      (原创)

①I now regret             (leave) school so young.   

②I regret           (inform) you that your contract will not be renewed.

(3)完成句子

                                                    (我非常抱歉), I am unable to accept your invitation.

(1)解析:选B。考查regret doing这一结构的用法。本空表达对过去发生的事情感到遗憾,同时还考查了动名词的否定形式 not doing。

(2)①leaving②to inform

(3)Much to my regret/To my great regret

5. reduce

vt.减少;缩小;降低;使……陷入某种更糟的状态

He is trying to reduce expenses. 他正试图减少开支。

We must gradually reduce the wage gap. 

我们必须逐步缩小工资差距。

常用结构:

reduce sth. to...             减少到……

reduce sth. by...            减少了……

be reduced to                沦落为……

The shopkeeper reduced the price by $10.

店主把价格降了10美元。

The poor boy is reduced to begging.

那个可怜的孩子已沦为乞丐。

高手过招

完成句子                                                            (原创)

①她的体重减少了5公斤。

She             her                               5 kilos.

②炸弹爆炸使得该城市化为废墟。

The bombs             the city                                 .

答案: ① reduced;weight by ② reduced;to ruins

6. comment

vi.&vt. 表达意见;作出评论

n.[C&U]评论;议论

常用结构:

comment on/about sth./sb. 对某事/某人进行评论

make comments/no comment on sth./sb.

对某事/某人进行评论/不进行评论

The scandal caused a lot of comment.

这件丑闻遭到很多议论。

“Will you resign, Minister?” “No comment!”

“部长,您是要辞职吗?”“无可奉告。”

高手过招

(1)用括号内所给单词的适当形式填空                      (原创)

Do you have any comments           (make) on the recent developments?

(2)完成句子                                                              (原创)

①Asked about the date of the election, the Prime Minister                              (发表意见) no decision had yet been made.

②She was asked about the pay increase but                    

                          (不进行评论) on it.

答案:(1)to make

(2) ①commented that ② made no comment

重点短语

7. thanks to

由于;多亏(有时用作反语);因为

Thanks to your help, we were successful.

由于你的帮助,我们成功了。

Thanks to you, I was saved from drowning.

多亏你,我才没被淹死。

Thanks to the bad weather, the match had been cancelled.

多亏了这倒霉的天气,比赛被取消了。(反语)

联想拓展

表示“因为,由于”的短语还有:

because of,owing to,on account of,due to,as a result of。

温馨提示

以上这些都是介词短语,因此后面可以跟名词或动名词而不可以跟从句。

高手过招

单项填空

①It was         your timely help that we accomplished the task on time.                   (2010·01·山西运城检测)

A. Because      B. thank    C. thanks to     D. as

②           the new policy, we are now having a happy life.                                         (2010·01·安徽亳州检测)

A. Thanks to    B. Because   

C. For               D. Thanks for

 ①解析:选C。because 和as 虽然也表示“因为,由于”,但后面需接句子,而句中是短语,故应用thanks to。句意为:幸亏你及时帮忙,我们才按时完成了任务。

②解析:选A。考查近义词辨析。thanks to意为“多亏了”;because后应加句子;for 表示补充说明的原因。

8. rid ...of

摆脱;除去

You should rid yourself of that bad habit.

你应该改掉那个坏习惯。

联想拓展

be rid of           摆脱

get rid of          摆脱;除掉;去掉

rid oneself of debt     还清债务

break away from        摆脱;放弃

You must break away from such a bad habit.

你必须改掉这样的坏习惯。

It won’t be long before we can be/get rid of the pest altogether.

不用太久,我们就能把这种害虫消除干净。

高手过招

同义句转换                                                       (原创)

Could you rid yourself of the bad habit of smoking? 

Could you                              the bad habit of smoking?

答案:  get  rid   of

9. would rather

宁愿,宁可

I’d rather you didn’t. (常用来委婉拒绝别人)

我希望你不要。

He would rather stay at home watching TV.

他宁愿待在家里看电视。

I’d rather not go there. 我宁愿不去那里。

I’d rather you came tomorrow than today.

我宁愿你明天来而不是今天来。

I’d rather have made a telephone call to him yesterday.

我昨天本想给他打个电话的。

联想拓展

would rather...than...是常用句式,意为“宁可(愿)……(而)不要(愿)……”

would rather+从句时,从句要用虚拟语气,用动词的过去时表示。

would rather have done 本想做……(而实际上未做)

高手过招

单项填空

①—Shall we go skating or stay at home?

—Which        do yourself?         (2010·01·江西南昌检测)

A. do you rather      B. would you rather

C. will you rather     D. should you rather

②I’d rather             the basketball match last night. Otherwise, I would have finished my paperwork by now.

                                                     (2010·01·江苏徐州检测)

A. not have watched           B. not watch

C. hadn’t watch                   D. haven’t watch

①解析:选B。考查would rather do sth.这一结构的用法。而do, will和should都不能与rather 搭配。would rather (not) do sth.意为“宁愿(不愿意)做某事”。

②解析:选A。would rather not have done意为“本不想做……(实际却做了)”。后一句句意为:否则我现在已经完成了我的文件。所以前句表示“本不想看球赛却看了”,故选A。

10. lead to

通向;导致;造成(后果)

注意:lead to中的to为介词,该短语后可跟名词或动名词。

The car accident led to his being killed.

那次车祸导致他死亡。

All roads lead to Rome.

条条大路通罗马。

Eating too much sugar can lead to health problems.

吃太多糖会导致健康问题。

His carelessness led to his failure.

他的粗心导致了他的失败。

联想拓展

result in        导致

result from   由……导致

高手过招

单项填空

The students in the university are all taking courses      a degree.                                   (2010·01·山东烟台检测)

A. sticking to     B. leading to 

C. turning to      D. referring to

解析:选B。考查动词短语辨析。stick to 坚持; lead to 导致,引起;通往;turn to求助,转向,查阅;refer to 指的是;谈论,查阅。由句意“大学生都在学习课程,以取得学位”可知,答案为B。

11. build up

逐步建立;逐渐增强;加强;树立;积累

The company has built up a fine reputation.

该公司已建立起良好的信誉。

You must build up your strength after your illness. 

你在病后必须要增强体力。

高手过招

完成句子                                                                    (原创)

①我们应该鼓励孩子们树立信心。

We should encourage the children to                              .

②看到你的词汇量在逐渐增长我很高兴。

I’m very glad to see that your vocabulary is                      .

答案: ① build up their confidence

② gradually building up

12. focus on

集中(注意力、精力等)于……;对(某事或做某事)予以注意;使聚焦于;使直射于

He focused his mind on his lessons. 他把心思集中在功课上。

Today we’re going to focus on the question of homeless people. 今天, 我们主要讨论无家可归者的问题。

A nearˉsighted person cannot focus accurately on distant objects. 近视的人看不清远处的物体。

联想拓展

focus one’s attention on sth.= center/concentrate/fix one’s attention on sth. 集中注意力于……

高手过招

完成句子                                                                     (原创)

①在我看来,学校应该把精力集中在教学上。

In my opinion, schools should                                        .

②他把相机对准了远处的高楼。

He       his camera         the huge building in the distance.

答案: ① focus attention on teaching

② focused;on

重点句型

13. In 1974, he became the first agricultural pioneer in the world to grow rice that has a high output.

1974年,他成为世界上第一位种植高产水稻的农业先锋。 

不定式放在表示次序的词the first, the last, the best以及the only, the very, the right等词后面, 且这些词与动词不定式有逻辑上的主谓关系,结构为:the first/last/best/only/very/right ...+n. + to do sth.表示“第一个/最后一个/最好的一个/唯一的/恰好的/合适的……做某事的人/物”。

He is always the first to come and the last to leave.

他总是第一个来并且最后一个离开。

The last man to leave the sinking ship was the captain.

最后一个离开正在下沉的船的那个人是船长。

高手过招

单项填空

He is the last person       to Mary’s birthday party.(原创)

A. to invite     B. to be invited 

C. invited       D.  being invited

解析:选B。考查不定式作定语的用法。当名词前面有序数词或last, next等词修饰时,名词后面多用不定式作定语。如New Zealand was the first nation in modern times to allow women to vote. 新西兰成为现代史上第一个允许妇女有选举权的国家。

14. Using his hybrid rice, farmers are producing harvests twice as large as before.

用他的杂交水稻种子,农民们种出的粮食比以前多了一倍。

倍数表达法:

A+be+倍数+as+adj.+as+B

A+be+倍数+比较级+than+B

A+be+倍数+(由某些形容词变化而来的)n.+of+B

I’m not going out with a man who’s twice as old as me.

我不愿意和一个年纪比我大一倍的男人一起参加社交活动。

We got three times as many people as expected.

来的人超过我们预料人数的两倍。

You’re not half as clever as you think you are.

你可不像自己想像的一半那么聪明。

高手过招

单项填空

What a table! I’ve never seen such a thing before.    It is                it is long.                                         (原创)

A. half not as wide as     B. wide not as half as

C. not half as wide as     D. as wide as not half

解析:选C。考查倍数表达法。表达倍数的结构应该是:A+ be+倍数+as+ adj.+ as +B。as... as中间是形容词或副词的原级,而不可以是比较级或最高级。

15. This also keeps the air, soil, water and crops free from chemicals.

这还可以让空气、土壤、水以及农作物不受化学物质的污染。

keep ...free from 无……的;免于……;摆脱……(常用作表语、后置定语或补语)

联想拓展

be free to do sth. 自由地做,随意地做

set  sb. free 释放某人

get/give  sth. for free免费得到/赠送

a smokeˉfree room/area无烟室/区

free of charge免费

高手过招

完成句子

用这个东西把桌子罩住,免得有灰尘落在上面。

          the table                     dirty by putting a cover over it.

答案:Keep; free from

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