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限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句六大区别及练习  

2013-09-01 10:48:25|  分类: 高中英语课程辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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讲解一:

区别一:形式不同 

限定性定语从句主句和从句之间不用逗号隔开,口语中使用时也不停顿;而非限定性定语从句与主句之间通常有逗号隔开,口语中使用时有停顿。

 

区别二:功能不同

限定性定语从句用于对先行词的意义进行修饰、限制和识别,如果去掉,就会造成句意不完整或概念不清;而非限定性定语从句用于对先行词起补充说明作用,如果省略,句意仍然清楚、完整。如:

People who take physical exercise live longer. 进行体育锻炼的人活得长些。(若把从句去掉句子就失去意义)

His daughter, who is in Boston now, is coming home next week. 他女儿现在在波士顿,下星期回来。(若把从句去句子意义仍然完整)

 

区别三:翻译不同

在翻译定语从句时,一般把限定性定语从句翻译在它所修饰的先行词之前,而把非限定性定语从句与主句分开。如:

He is the man whose car was stolen. 他就是汽车被窃的那个人。

I’ve invited Jim, who lives in the next flat. 我邀请了吉姆,他就住在隔壁。

 

区别四:含义不同

比较下面的两个句子:

I have a sister who is a doctor. 我有一个医生的姐姐。(姐姐不止一个)

I have a sister, who is a doctor. 我有一个姐姐,她是当医生的。(只有一个姐姐)

 

区别五:先行词不同

限定性定语从句的先行词只能是名词或代词,而非限定性定语从句的先行词则可以是名词或代词,也可以是短语或句子;另外,当先行词为专有名词或其他具有独一无二性的普通名词时,通常要用非限制性定语从句,而不用限制性定语从句。如:

Peter drove too fast, which was dangerous. 彼得开车很快,这是很危险的。(which指drive too fast)

He changed his mind, which made me very angry. 他改变了主意,这使我很生气。(which指整个主句)

Mr. Smith, who is our boss, will leave for Japan next week. 我们的老板史密斯先生下周要去日本。(先行词为专有名词,要用非限制性定语从句修饰)

Her father, who has a lot of money, wishes her to study abroad. 她父亲很有钱,希望她出国学习。(先行词为表独一无二意义的普通名词,要用非限制性定语从句修饰)

 

区别六:关系词不同

关系词that和why可用于限制性定语从句中,通常不用于非限制性定语从句;另外,在限制性定语从句中,关系词有时可以省略(参见本章有关内容),而在非限制性定语从句中关系词一律不省略。区别一:形式不同 

限定性定语从句主句和从句之间不用逗号隔开,口语中使用时也不停顿;而非限定性定语从句与主句之间通常有逗号隔开,口语中使用时有停顿。

 



解释二:
一、在句中作用不同
限制性定语从句对被修饰的先行词有限定制约作用,使该词的含义更具体,更明确。限制性定语从句不能被省略,否则句意就不完整。
非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不十分密切,只是对其作一些附加说明,不起限定制约作用。如果将非限制性定语从句省去,主句的意义仍然完整。
二、外在表现形式不同
限制性定语从句因与先行词关系密切,所以不可以用逗号将其与主句隔开;而非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不十分密切,所以可用逗号将其与主句隔开。
例 1. Do you remember the girl who taught us English?
你还记得教我们英语的那个女孩吗?
例 2. Clock is a kind of instrument which can tell people time.
钟是一种能够告诉人们时间的仪器。
例 3. This is the place where he used to live.
这就是他过去居住的地方。
例 4. Mr. Zhang, who came to see me yesterday, is an old friend of mine.
张先生昨天来看我,他是我的一位朋友。
例 5. We walked down the village street, where they were having market day.
我们沿着村里的大街向前走去,村民们正在那里赶集。
析:在前三个例句中,定语从句与先行词关系密切,为限制性定语从句,不可用逗号将其与主句隔开。在后两个例句中,定语从句与先行词关系不密切,为非限制性定语从句,可用逗号将其与主句隔开。
三、先行词内容有所不同
大多数限制性和非限制性定语从句的先行词往往为某一个词或短语,而特殊情况下非限制性定语从句的先行词也可为整个主句,此时非限制性定语从句常由 which 引导。
例 1. A middle-aged woman killed her husband, which frightened me very much.
一个中年女子杀害了自己的丈夫,这令我十分恐惧。
析:由语境可知,令“我”恐惧的内容应为“中年女子杀害了自己的丈夫”这整个一件事,因此先行词为整个主句,此时应由 which 引导定语从句。
例 2. A five-year-old boy can speak two foreign languages, which surprises all the people present.
一个五岁男孩会讲两门外语,这令所有在场的人感到非常惊讶。
析:由语境可知,令所有在场的人感到惊讶的内容是“一个五岁男孩会讲两门外语”这整个一件事,因此先行词为整个主句,此时应由 which 引导非限制性定语从句。
四、关系词的使用情况有所不同
(一) that 不可用于引导非限制性定语从句
所有关系代词和关系副词均可引导限制性定语从句,大多数关系代词和关系副词可引导非限制性定语从句,但 that 不可。
例 1. 他送给他母亲一台彩电作为生日礼物,这使她非常高兴。
误: He gave his mother a color TV set for her birthday, that pleased her a lot.
正: He gave his mother a color TV set for her birthday, which pleased her a lot.
例 2. 他没通过这次考试,令我很失望。
误: He didn't pass the exam, that disappointed me.
正: He didn't pass the exam, which disappointed me.
值得注意的是,不少同学误认为只有 which 才能引导非限制性定语从句,这个观点是不正确的。使用非限制性定语从句时,如果先行词指人,则用 who , which 或 whose 引导非限制性定语从句;先行词指物可用 which 引导非限制性定语从句;先行词表时间或地点且在从句中作时间状语或地点状语时,可用 when , where 引导非限制性定语从句。
例 1. We'll graduate in July, when we will be free.
我们将于七月份毕业,到那时我们就自由了。
例 2. Last Sunday they reached Nanjing, where a conference was to be held.
他们上周日到达南京,有个会议要在那里举行。
(二)关系代词替代情况不同
关系代词 whom 在限制性定语从句中作宾语时可用 who 代替 whom ,但 whom 在非限制性定语从句中作宾语时不可用 who 来代替。
例 1. This is the girl whom I met in the street.
这是我在街上遇到的那个女孩。
析:先行词 the girl 在限制性定语从句中作宾语,可用 who 代替 whom .
例 2. A young man had a new girl friend, whom he wanted to impress.
一个年轻的小伙子新交了一个女朋友,他想给她留下深刻的印象。
析:先行词 a new girl friend 在非限制性定语从句中作宾语,不可用 who 代替 whom .
在限制性定语从句中,先行词指人时可用 that 代替 who/ whom ,但在非限制性定语从句中先行词指人时,不可用 that 代替 who/whom .
例:她有一个姐姐,她是教师。
误: She has a sister, that is a teacher.
正: She has a sister, who is teacher.
(三)关系代词省略情况不同
关系代词在限制性定语从句中作宾语时可以省去,非限制性定语从句的所有关系词均不可省。
例 1. This is the book (which/that) he lost yesterday.
这就是他昨天丢的那本书。
析:先行词 the book 在限制性定语从句中作宾语,关系代词 which 或 that 可以省略。
例 2. The book, which he lost yesterday, has been found.
他昨天丢了这本书,但现在已找到了。
析:先行词 the book 在非限制性定语从句中作宾语,关系代词 which 不可省。
【巩固练习】

1. — Is that the small company you often refer to?

— Right, just the one _______ you know my father used to work for years.

A. that        B. which      C. where      D. as

2. — Where did they fi nish the experiment?

— It was in the lab _______ was taken charge of by Prof. Smith.

A. where    B. /              C. which       D. in which

3. Examination compositions, together with most business letters and government reports, are the main situations _______ formal language is used.

A. in which  B. in that      C. of which   D. of that

4. Which film is the one _______ main actor has won the Best Actor Prize in the film festival?

A. who       B. whom       C. whose     D. which

5. In that country, November 30th is a national festival _______ everyone, men and women, old and young, sings and dances happily in the streets.

A. where     B. when        C. that         D. as

6. This is John Brown, _______ I think has something interesting to tell you.

A. which      B. whom      C. that          D. who

7. We climbed the Huangshan Mountain yesterday, _______, not surprisingly, was crowded with visitors from all over the world.

A. where      B. which      C. that          D. when

8. The famous football player, _______ a big party will be held tomorrow morning, is to arrive this afternoon.

A. in honour of him           B. in his honour

C. in whose honour          D. in which honour

9. _______ was reported in the newspaper, seventeen passengers had been killed in the traffi c accident.

A. It             B. As           C. What       D. That

10. The owner paid the worker $10 for tidying the whole building, most of _______ hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.

A. that         B. what         C. when       D. which

11. He has made great contributions to the science of physics, _______ he was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize.

A. about which                 B. what

C. for which                     D. when

12. I don’t want to use the same tool _______ you used yesterday to repair the air conditioner.

A. it             B. that          C. one          D. what

13. They were interested _______ you told them.

A. in which                       B. in that

C. all that                         D. in everything

14. Is that the reason _______ you are in favor of the proposal?

A. which       B. what       C. why          D. for that

15. I have bought the same dress _______ she is wearing.

A. as            B. that         C. which        D. what

 

 

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