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非谓语动词全面解析及练习——动名词  

2013-09-25 09:32:09|  分类: 高中英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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动名词(动名词具有动词和名词的特征,在句中作主语、表语、宾语和定语)

一、动名词的作用

1、作主语

谓语用单数。It代替动名词作主语,常用于如下结构:

Its no good/use doing···如:

Seeing is believing.

Playing with fire is dangerous.

Its no good waiting here.

2、作宾语

I enjoy listening to music.

He often practices playing the piano in the evening.

He is fond of playing basketball.

He has given up smoking.

Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please?

 

只能接动名词作宾语的动词:

admitadvise建议,riskappreciateenvy嫉妒,avoid避免,

consider考虑,delay延迟,deny否认,dislike不喜欢,enjoyescape逃避,excuse原谅、宽恕,

finish完成,forgive原谅,understand理解,give up放弃,imagine想象,keep保持,mind介意、在乎,miss未达到,practise训练,put off推迟,resist抵抗,suggest建议、暗示

cant help 禁不住,cant stand无法忍受,devote to(to为介词)致力于···,look forward to 期望、盼望,

stick to坚持,be used to习惯于,object to反对,be busy忙于···,fee like想要···

be surprised at 对……感到惊讶 be proud of 以……为骄傲 succeed in 在某方面成功

be afraid of害怕  give up 放弃

 

只能接不定式作宾语的动词:

happen 碰巧,offer 主动提出,promise 答应,agree 同意,refuse拒绝,decide 决定,

determine 决定、决心,pretend 假装,fail 未能够,learnwish希望,hopeexpectafford 负担得起。

  

接动名词、不定式均可,意义相同的动词:likelovedislikehatebeginstarcontinueprefer

cant bear/endure 无法忍受,cease停止

 

下列词接动名词和不定式均可,但意义不同的动词:forgetgo onmeanregretrememberstoptry

Stop to do 停下来去做                   stop doing 停止做

Forget to do 忘记要做                   forget doing 忘记做过

Remember to do 记得要做               remember doing 记得做过

Regret to do 遗憾要做                   regret doing 后悔做过

Try to do 企图做,尽力做                try doing 试着做

Go on to do 继续做(另一件事)         go on doing 继续做(同一件事)

Mean to do 打算做                     mean doing 意味做

In some parts of London, missing a bus means _______ for another hour.

A  waiting      B  to waiting     C  wait        D  to be waiting

答案:A

 

Need, require, want作“需要”讲,其后用动名词的主动式表示被动意义,be worth也有类似用法。如:

The flowers need watering/to be watered.

The problem is worth discussing.

 

3、作表语

此时的动名词可以和主语调换位置。如:

My hobby is collecting stamps.

Her job is washing, cleaning and taking care of the child.

 

4、作定语

动名词作定语,一般表示用途。如:

a waiting rooma diving boarda reading rooma dining hall

there are a lot of swimming pools in the city.

注:(1)现在分词作定语表动作,它与所修饰的名词之间存在逻辑上的主谓关系,可改写成一个定语从句。

如果为单词,放在被修饰n之前,为短语,放在被修饰n之后。

如:a sleeping boy =a boy who is sleeping

    a developing country =a country which is developing

2)动名词作定语通常表示它所修饰的名词的用途或性质,可改写成一个for的短语,两者不存在逻辑上的主谓关系。

如:a washing machine = a mashine for washing

         a swimming pool = a pool for swimming

 

二、动名词的时态和语态

1、动名词的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,通常要用完成式,否则都用一般式。如:

We are interested in playing chess.

He was praised for having finished the work ahead of time.

Im sorry for not having kept my promise.

若主语是动名词所表示的动作的对象,动名词用被动语态。如:

We must do something to prevent water from being polluted.

I remember having been told a story.

He was afraid of being scolded by the teacher.

 

 

及物动词

不及物动词

 

主动

被动

主动

一般时

doing

being done

doing

完成时

having done

having been done

having done

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