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非谓语动词全面解析及练习——分词  

2013-09-25 09:36:33|  分类: 高中英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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分词(分词分为现在分词和过去分词。在句中作定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语。)

一、现在分词和过去分词的区别:

在语态上,现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词表示被动意义;

在时间上,现在分词表示的动作往往正在进行或者与谓语动词同时发生,过去分词表示的动作已经完成或没有一定的时间性。

如:falling leaves 正在下落的树叶  fallen leaves 已经落在地上的树叶

二、分词的作用

1、作定语

单个分词作定语,分词前置。如:

The sleeping boy is my son.

The excited people rushed into the building.

A lost opportunity never returns.

He is a retired worker.

分词短语作定语,分词后置;分词修饰不定代词something等要后置;个别分词如giveleft等作定语也后置。如:

The girl standing under the tree is my niece.

The building built last year is our library.

This is the question given.

There is nothing interesting.

过去分词作定语与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。如:

Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists

The first textbook ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.

A  have written      B  to be written     C  being written    D  written

答案:D

 

Whats the language ______ in Germany?

A  speaking          B  spoken         C  be spoken     D  to speak

答案:B

Prices of daily goods ______ through a computer can be lower than store prices.

A  are bought        B  bought         C  been bought   D  buying.

答案:B

When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door ______ Sorry to miss you; will call later.

A  read             B  reads           C  to read       D  reading

答案:D

解析:reading pinned to the door 一样作message 的后置定语,相当于which read, pinned reading的逻辑主语都是 message,它与pin是被动关系,用—ed 形式,与 read 是主动关系,用—ing 形式

2、作状语

现在分词和过去分词在句中可以作时间、原因、方式、伴随、条件、结果等状语。

Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.

As I didnt receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.

Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.

If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.(条件)

Walking along the street, I ran across my old friend.

Bitten by a snake, he was taken to hospital(原因).

Though defeated, he didnt lose heart.(让步)

He lay on the grass, looking into the sky.(伴随)

He came running to tell me the good news.(方式)

______ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.

A  Followed    B  Followed by   C  Being followed    D  Having been followed

答案:B

   There was a terrible noise______ the sudden burst of light.

   A  followed     B  following     C  to be followed     D  being followed

   答案:B

   ______ , liquids can be changed into gases.

   A  Heating      B  To be heated  C  Heated          D  Heat

   答案:C

   注意:

选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是由主句的主语发出,分词就用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。试比较:

BeingUsed for a long time, the book looks old.由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。

Using the book, I find it useful.在使用的过程中,我发现这本书很有用。

分词作状语时,其逻辑主语必须和主句的主语一致,如果不一致,就用独立主格结构,即在分词前加上它的逻辑主语。现在分词的完成式主要用于作状语,一般不用作定语。

When______, the museum will be open to the public next year.

A  completed    B  completing   C  being completed    D  to be completed

答案:A

 

 

______ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river.

A  Having suffered  B  Suffering    C  To suffer          D  Suffered

答案:A

3、作表语

现在分词作表语多表示主语具有的特征,过去分词作表语多指主语所处的状态。如:

The film is touching.

The glass is broken.

She looked tired with cooking.

He remained standing beside the table.

 

Im very______ with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious.

Mm, it does have a ______ smell.

A  pleasant; pleased  B  pleased; pleased  C  pleasant; pleasant  D  pleased; pleasant

答案:D

4、作宾语补足语

分词和不定式一样,在一些感官动词或使役动词后作宾语补足语。如:

I smell something burning.

I heard him singing the song.

I heard my name called.

I cant make myself understood in English.

I found my car missing.

Ill have my watch repaired.我想把我的手表修一下。

The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year.

A  carry out     B  carrying out    C  carried out    D  to carry out

   答案:C

5、作插入语

其结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。

generally speaking 一般说来          talking of (speaking of) 说到

strictly speaking 严格地说            judging from 从···判断

all things considered 从整体来看      taking all things into consideration 全面看来。如:

Judging from his face, he must be ill.从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。

Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs.总的来说,狗比猪跑得快。

二、分词的时态

1、与主语动词同时。如:

Arriving there, they found the boy dead.刚一到那儿,他们就发现那男孩死了。

The secretary worked late into the night, ______ a long speech for the president.

A  to prepare      B  preparing      C  prepared      D  was preparing

答案:B

 

2、先于主语动词

分词作时间状语,如果先于主动词的动作,且强调先后,要用having done。如:

Having finished his homework, he went out for a walk.

After he had finished his homework, he went out for a walk.

做完作业,他出去散步。

______ a reply, he decided to write again.

A  Not receiving                  B  Receiving not                            

C  Not having received            D  Having not received

答案:C

三、分词的语态

通常情况下,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动。如:

He is the man giving you/who gave you the book他就是给你书的那个人

She is the girl stopped by/who was stopped by the car.她就是那个被车拦住的女孩。

不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生。像:gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned等词。如:

a retired person 一个退休的人        a fallen ball 一个落下来的球

a burnt-out match 烧完了的火柴

 

 

 

课堂综合练习题:

We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketball, ______ that all children like these things.

A  thinking        B  think       C  to think     D  thought

There have been several new events ______ to the program for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

A  add            B  to add      C  adding      D  added

I cant stand ______ with Jane in the same office. She just refuses ______ talking while she works.

A  working; stopping                  B  to work; stopping

C  working; to stop                   D   to work; to stop

A good story does not necessarily have to have a happy ending, but the reader must not be left ______.

A  unsatisfied      B  unsatisfying    C  to be satisfying   D  being satisfied

No matter how frequently ______, the works of Beethoven still attract people all over the world.

A  performed    B  performing   C  to be performed   D  being performed

______ this cake, youll need 2 eggs,175g sugar and 175g flour.

A  Having made       B  Make        C  To make     D  Making

If you think that treating a woman well means always ______ her permission for things, think again.

A  gets         B  got          C  to get        D  getting

As the twentieth century came to a close, the raw materials for a great national literature were at hand, waiting ______

A  to use       B  to be used     C  to have used    D  to be using

It took a long time for the connection between body temperature and illness ______.

A  to make      B  to be made     C  making       D  being made

The Chinese are proud of the 29th Olympic Games ______ in Beijing in 2008.

A  hold         B  holding        C  held          D  to be held

______ with so much trouble, we failed to complete the task on time.

A  Faced         B  Face          C  Facing        D  To face

AIDS is said ______ the biggest health challenge to both men and women in that area over the past few years.

A  that it is      B  to be           C  that it has been   D  to have been

Dont sit there ______ nothing. Come and help me with this table.

A  do           B  to do           C  doing         D  and doing

Faced with a bill for $10,000, ______.

A  John has taken an extra job         B  the boss has given John an extra job

C  an extra job has been taken         D  an extra job has been given to John

He hurried to the booking office only ______ that all the tickets had been sold out.

A  to tell         B  to be told       C  telling         D  told

Five people won the Chinas Green Figure award, a title______ to ordinary people for their contributions to environmental protection.

A  being given     B  is given         C  given         D  was given

Police are now searching for a woman who is reported to ______ since the flood hit the area last Friday.

A  have been missing    B  have got lost      C  be missing   D  get lost

The bird flu ______ through Asia has jumped from birds to humans at least 20 times so far,______ 16.

A  sweeps; killed   B  swept; killing  C  sweeping; to kill  D  sweeping; killing

The man ______ of shooting 6 school children was caught by Beijing police, the Xinhua News Agency reported on Friday.

A  being suspected   B  suspecting    C  suspected    D  to be suspected

The students entered the classroom, smiling and ______ , and ______ down to have their lessons.

A  talked; sat        B  talking; sitting  C  talking; sat   D  talked; sitting

——Have you ever heard of an American president called Chester A. Arhur?

——No , and hes not mentioned in my history book at all. He seems ______

A  to have been completely forgotten     B  having completely forgotten

C  to have completely forgotten          D  completely forgetting

With the magazine An Express Way to English ______ us , we will improved our language skills a lot.

A  helping           B  helped        C  has helped    D  to help

It displeases my parents when Richard and I stay out late at night. My parents dont approve ______

A  of Richard and me staying out late at night

B  of me and Richard staying out late at night

C  to Richardss and my staying out late at night

D  when Richard and me stay out late at night

A communicative satellite ______ as much as 3.5 tons was sent up into space last week.

A  weighing     B  weighed       C  to be weighed   D  being weighed

______ of stealing money from the bank, he was questioned by the police.

A  Accusing     B  Accused        C  Having accused  D  To accuse

 

 

 

答案:1~5   ADCAA  6~10  CDBBD  11~15  ADCAB  16~20  CADCC  21~25  ADAAB

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