注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

流动的光彩

岁月如水 人生是河 宽容能拯救一切

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

我有点懒,可是我很幸福。因为我有时时刻刻关心我的父母,时时刻刻照顾我的老婆,还有离不开我的一个漂亮的小姑娘。 对于生活,我很满足。

网易考拉推荐

人教版高中英语导学案 选修六 unit5 The Power of Nature (中)  

2014-12-12 21:34:21|  分类: 高中英语导学案 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |


Period 4 Grammar

课型:语法,现在分词作状语

学习目的:掌握本单元语法。

教学过程:

分词做状语(单元语法讲解)

分词是动词的三种非限定形式之一,分为两种:现在分词和过去分词。现在分词的形式是“动词原形+ing;规则的过去分词在动词原形后加“ed”。分词也具有动词的特征,有时态和语态的变化,并可带状语宾语等。分词的否定式在分词前加not (例如:not whishing, not having received). 分词做状语时表示的动作是主语的一部分,与谓语表示的动作(或状态)是同时或几乎同时发生的,有时先于谓语的动作发生。分词做状语一般于其他成分用逗号分开。分词可以做时间,原因,方式,条件,结果,目的,让步等状语。由于该语法对高中生做题过程中易出错,特此提出一些做题思路,以备同学们参考:

1 题型结构:

_______________________S+V+O.(多把表时间,原因,条件,目的状语等放句前)

S+V+O,_________________________. (表结果,伴随的状语等放句后)

逗号前后没有连词连接(and, but, when, as, where, however,等),就构成了非谓语做状语的基本前提,现在分词的主动式主要是与句中主语逻辑上的一种主谓关系(),现在分词的被动式主要是与句中主语逻辑上的一种动宾关系;现在分词的进行式是指分词所表示的动作(或状态)与句中动作同时或几乎同时发生,现在分词的完成式是指分词所表示的动作(或状态)一定先于句中谓语动作发生。

Eg.1. Seeing from the hilltop, he was delighted to see a wonderful view.

           主动关系

        同时关系

此句中,逗号前后无连词连接故不能同时出现两个简单句,see 逻辑主语是 he,他们之间是一种主谓关系(主动),see 动作与be delighted to see几乎是同时性(同时),因此seeing(主动,进行)符合要求,相当与一个时间状语从句:when he saw from the hilltop, he was delighted to see a wonderful view

2.Seen from the hilltop, the valley looked like a wonderland.(从山顶上看去,峡谷宛若仙境。)

在本句中,seethe valley 构成了逻辑上的动宾关系即 可理解为“峡谷”是被看的,而峡谷的美(宛若仙境)是本身存在的事实,因此用过去分词强调see与主语the valley            被动关系即可。

3. Seen from the pagoda, the south foot of the Purple Mountain is a sea of trees.

从这个塔上远眺,紫金山南麓是树的海洋。

4. Having written an important letter, I listened to the music for a while.

此句中writeI是逻辑上的主谓关系(主动),write动作先于句中listen to the music的动作,故用having written(主动,完成)作状语。

5Having been written in haste, the essay was not worth reading.

此句中the essay write 是被动关系,write动作先于be  worth  reading 之前 是同时强调被动完成,所以选用 Having been written(被动,完成),该分词表原因。

为了使同学们更好地理解,特分类如下:

1)    作时间状语时相当与when引导的时间状语从句。

这类状语通常放在句子的前半部分,也可至于句子后面,若两个动作同时发生,可在分词前用when while表示强调。

Eg. Hearing the news, they immediately set off for Shanghai. (When they heard the news ,they……)

When leaving the airport, they waved again and again to us.

Having finished his homework, he watched TV for a while.

2)    作原因状语相当于as, since, because 引导的从句,这类状语多放在句子的前半部分。

Eg: Being a layman in matters of culture, I would like to study them. .(As I am a layman in matters of culture, I would like to study them. )

   The doctor, not wanting to make the patient nervous, did not explain the seriousness of his illness.

3)    作条件状语相当于if, unless 等引导的从句

这类状语一般放在句子的前半部分。

Eg: Turning to the right, you will find a path leading to his cottage.

(If you turn to the right, you…… )

United we stand, divided we fall. 团结就是胜利,分裂必然失败。

4)作让步状语相当于though ,even if 等引导的从句。表示让步的状语要放句前,一般不可放在句尾,但前有连词时例外。

  Admitting what she has said, I still think that she hasnt tried her best.(A though I admit what she has said, I still think……)尽管承认她所说的话,但我仍然认为她没有尽最大的努力。

  Granting his honesty, we still cant employ him.就算他是诚实的,我们也不能雇佣他。

4)    作方式或伴随状语不能用状语从句替换,但可以改成并列句,通常放句后。

He walked down the hill, singing softly to himself.

(He walked down the hill and sang softly to himself.)

Kneeling and shutting her eyes, she prayed to the goddess.

She stood by the window watching the sunsets.

The boy run home , crying

5)    作结果状语相当于so that引导的从句。这类状语通常放在句子的后半部分,并有逗号同前面的句子成分隔开,长可以译为“于是,所以,或因此”等。这种分词的逻辑主语即可以是句子的主语,也可以是前边的整个句子,如果逻辑主语是前边的整个句子,其作用相当于一个非限制性定语从句。

Eg:  The old scientist died all of a sudden, leaving the project unfinished.

     He turned off the lamp,(thereby) seeing nothing.

     The output of steel increased by 15% last year, reaching 30,000 tons.

以上是我们对分词做状语简单了解,但在具体作题中会碰到很多问题,如何准确判断,总结如下:

1 有一类题,和分词做状语结构相似,但他是一种独立成分做状语,无需考虑逻辑主语的主被动关系,动作的完成或同时,所以称之为独立成分,请牢记以下内容:

According to………  (根据……)

Judging from/by………(由…判断)

Considering………(鉴于)

Provided/providing that……(如果)

Compared to/with……(与…相比较)

Supposing that……(假设,如果)

Generally speaking…… 一般说来

Frankly speaking……  坦白地说

Properly speaking…… 正确的说来

To tell you the truth……说实话

Takinginto consideration 考虑到

Seeing……   考虑到

Saving……    除了,除非

Assuming…… 假使

Admitting…… 虽说,即使

Given……   如果 

Eg:

Given another chance ,I’ll do it better.

Given time, hell make a first class writer.(2003,北京,28)

Judging from his accent, he is from the north.

Considering your age, you’d better live with your son.

Generally speaking, the more expensive the camera, the better its quality.     

2)另一类题是由be +p.p.+ prep+n/pron/v-ing,要么是被动语态,要么是表一种状态,此结构,一般情况去be后,可把分词直接用做状语。

be satisfied with   be excited about   be pleased with be surprised at   be married to   be engaged to be accepted by   be followed by    be faced with be driven by   be interested in   be lost in thought be used to/as/for  be armed with  be surrounded by be born in    be dressed in   eg:     be filled with be covered with/by     ……………

练一练:

A.作时间状语:

eg.)_______ (hear) the bad news, they couldnt help crying.

= _______________, they couldn’t help crying.

When/ While( _____ _____ ) ____ (take) around the city, we were deeply impressed by the citys new look.

While/When (I was) _____ (wander) through the square, I caught sight of a snake-charmer.

_______ (finish) his work, he went home. 

B.作原因状语:

Eg.) _____ (be poor), he could not afford to travel abroad.

________ (encourage) by his heroic deeds, they worked harder.

_______ (lose) in thought, he almost ran into a post.

________ (frighten) by the big forest fire, the animals all ran away.

_____ (not know) her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.

______ (never be) to the city, he soon got lost.

_________ (not receive) his letter, I decided to call him up.

C.方式/伴随状语;

Eg.)

1.The teacher stood there, ______ (surround) by a lot of students.

1 surrounded

D.作条件状语:

Eg.)______ (give) another chance, I would have done the job far better.

=______________ , I would have done the job far better.

E.作结果状语:(意料中的结果)

Eg.) The hunters fired, _____(shoot) one of the wolves.

The bus was held up by the snowstorm, thus _____ (cause) the delay.

区别: 不定式表示意外的结果

eg.) He hurried to the station, only ____ (find) the train had left.

分词作状语时, 需注意事项:

A.分词短语作状语时,它的逻辑主语通常应是________ :

____ (see) from the hill, the city is beautiful.

___ (see) from the hill, you can see the whole city.

A 句中主语,seen, seeing

高考链接:

2007,浙江,20________ by a greater demand for vegetables, farmers have built more green house.

 A Driven     B .Being driven    C.  To drive     D. Having driven

2.2004 北京 29__________in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had his wallet at home

. A To wait      B have waited      C Having waited     D To have waited


  评论这张
 
阅读(264)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017