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我有点懒,可是我很幸福。因为我有时时刻刻关心我的父母,时时刻刻照顾我的老婆,还有离不开我的一个漂亮的小姑娘。 对于生活,我很满足。

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人教版高中英语语法 必修一unit1 直接引语和间接引语  

2014-07-23 10:35:04|  分类: 高中英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 Grammar

Direct speech and Indirect speech(直接引语和间接引语)

⑴.时态变化:如果主句谓语动词为现在时,从句时态无须变化;当主句谓语的动词时态为过去时时,则从句谓语应做相应变化:

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

一般过去时

现在进行时

过去进行时

一般将来时

过去将来时

一般过去时

过去完成时

现在完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时

不变

⑵.特殊情况:出现下列情况时,从句的时态也不必变化

①.直接引语的内容为普遍存在的客观真理

②.直接引语中有明确的表示过去时间的时间状语

③.直接引语本身就是过去进行时、过去完成时和过去将来时

④.直接引语中有should,could,would,ought to,must,had better,would rathe时;

⑤.当主句中动词的主语是第一人称时,间接引语中的人称代词不变;

⑥.当直接引语中的主语是第三人称时,间接引语中的人称也勿须变化。

eg:  1.The teacher said,The earth travels around the sun.    

       The teacher said that the earth travels around the sun.

     2.Mr. John said,I visited the Great Wall in 1998.    

       Mr. John said that he visited the Great Wall in 1998.

       3.Mary said,I must finish the work in time.    

         Mary said that she must finish the work in time.

       4.I said,You did quite well.    

         I said that you had done quite well.

       5.Tom said to me,She will fly to Beijing.

         Tom told me that she would fly to Beijing.

.句式变化

   .陈述句和感叹句变为间接引语时一般变为that引导的宾语从句that可省),感叹号变为句号谓语动词是say/said to sb.的要改为tell/told sb.

   eg:  1.He often says,China is great.    

          He often says (that) China is great.

        2.He often says to me,What a great country China is!

          He often tells me (that) China is such a great country.

   .一般疑问句ifwhether,直接引语中的疑问句式变为间接引语中的陈述句式,后加句号谓语动词是say/said (to sb.)的要改为ask/asked (sb.)

   eg:  1.He said,Did you see her last night?     

          He asked (me) if/whether I had seen her the night before.

        2.mother said to me, did you do your homework yesterday?     

          Mother asked me if/whether I had done my homework the day before.

   另外,选择疑问句和反意疑问句,多用whether连接,其他一样。

   eg:  1.He said,Did Tom leave today or yesterday?    

          He asked whether Tom had left that day or the day before.

        2.Youve already finished your experiment, havent you? asked the teacher.     

           The teacher asked me whether I had already finished my experiment.

   如果是否定的一般疑问句则用whetheror not连接其他一样。

   eg: He said,Dont you know Im one of you?    

       He asked (us) whether we knew he was one of us or not.

   ③.特殊疑问句,疑问词加上陈述语序,再加句号,其他不变。

   eg:  1.What are you doing now? he asked.       

           He asked me what I was doing then.

2.He asked,How are you getting along, Tom?     

          He asked Tom how he was getting along.

   .祈使句要将动词原形变为带to的不定式并在不定式的前面根据句子的意思加上tell, ask, order等动词如果祈使句的否定式在其前面加not

   eg:  1.She said to us,Please sit down.    

          She asked us to sit down.

        2.He said,Dont make so much noise, boys.    

          He told the boys not to make so much noise.

        3.He said to him,Go away!    

          He ordered him to go away.

⑷.指示代词的变化:

直接引语

间接引语

this

That

these

those

⑸.地点状语和部分方向性动词的变化:

直接引语

间接引语

here

there

come

go

bring

take

说明:如果在当地转述,here不必改为there, come不必改为go,bring也不用改。

⑹.时间状语的变化:

直接引语

间接引语

today 今天

that day 那天

yesterday 昨天

the day before 前一天

tomorrow 明天

the next day/the following day 第二天

next week(month,year) 下周下月明年……)

the next week(month,year) 第二周……)

tonight 今晚

that night 那天晚上

last week(month,year…) 上周(上个月,去年……)

the week(month,year) before 前一周……)

the day after tomorrow 后天

two days later 两天后

the day before yesterday 前天

two days before/earlie 两天前

ago 以前

before/earlie 以前

now 现在

then 那时

so far 迄今为止

by then 到那时

说明:如果是在当天转述,today, yesterday, tomorrow等时间状语不必改变。

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