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人教版高中英语语法 必修三 unit5 同位语从句(名词性从句)  

2014-07-23 14:08:59|  分类: 高中英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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同位语从句

同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。

 

1. 同位语从句的功能

    同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容,一般由that引导,例如:

  1) The king’s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people.

  2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general.

 

2. 同位语在句子中的位置

    同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别的词隔开。例如:

    He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off.

 

3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别

(1) 定语从句中的that既代替先行词,同时以在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语),而同位语从句中的that是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。

(2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如:

1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。)(第一个that引导的从句是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语)

2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。)(同位语从句,that在句中不作任何成分)


Unit5. 同位语从句

一、理解同位语从句的含义,把握同位语从句的实质

在主从复合句中作同位语的从句称为同位语从句。同位语从句一般用

that, whetherwhat, which, who, when, where, why, how 等词引导,常放

fact, news, idea, truth, hope, problem, information, wish,promise,

answer, evidence, report, explanation, suggestion, conclusion 等抽象

名词后面,说明该名词的具体内容。换言之,同位语从句和所修饰的名词在内容

上为同一关系,对其内容作进一步说明。

例:The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole

school.他们比赛获胜的消息很快传遍了整个学校。

析:they had won the game说明 The news的全部内容,因此该句为同位

语从句。

二、正确运用同位语从句的引导词,准确把握同位语从句

1.如同位语从句意义完整,应用 that引导同位语从句。(即 that 不充当

任何成分,只起连接作用,不可省略)

例:The general gave the order that the soldiers should cross

the river at once.将军下达了战士们立即过河的命令。

析:the soldiers should cross the river at oncethe order

全部内容,且意义完整,因此应用that引导同位语从句。

2.如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加"是否"的含义,应用whether引导同位

语从句。(if不能引导同位语从句)

例:We'll discuss the problem whether the sports meeting will

be held on time.我们将讨论运动会是否会如期举行的问题。

析:the sports meeting will be held on time意义不完整,应加"

是否"的含义才能表达the problem的全部内容,因此应用whether引导同位语

从句。

3.如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加"什么时候""什么地点""什么方式"

等含义,应用when, where, how等词引导同位语从句。

1I have no idea when he will be back.

析:he will be back意义不完整,应加"什么时候"的含义才能表达

idea的全部内容,因此应用when引导同位语从句。

2I have no impression how he went home, perhaps by bike.

析:he went home意义不完整,应加"如何"的含义才能表达impression

全部内容,因此应用how引导同位语从句。

4.当主句的谓语较短,而同位语从句较长时,同位语从句常后置。

如:The thought came to him that maybe the enemy had fled the

city.

三、把握同位语从句和定语从句的区别,明确同位语从句和相似从句的界限

同位语从句和定语从句相似,都放在某一名词或代词后面,但同位语从句不

同于定语从句。同位语从句对名词加以补充说明,是名词全部内容的体现,且名

词和同位语从句的引导词均不在从句中作成分;定语从句说明先行词的性质与特

征,与先行词是修饰与被修饰的关系,且名词和定语从句的引导词均在从句中作

成分。

区分时可以在先行词与从句之间加一个系动词be,使之构成一个新句子,如

果句子通顺且符合逻辑,则为同位语从句,反之,则为定语从句。

如:The report that he was going to resign was false.

因为 the report was that he was going to resign 句意通顺,所以,

that he was going to resign 是同位语从句。

1

1 Information has been put forward ____ more middle school

graduates will be admitted into universities.

A. while B. that C. when D. as

析:答案为 Bmore middle school graduates will be admitted

into universitiesInformation的内容,且Information不在从句中作成分,

所以该句为同位语从句。应将该句区别于:

2It is said that more middle school graduates will be admitted

into universitiesthis is the information ____ has been put forward.

A. what B. that C. when D. as

析:答案为Bthat has been put forwardinformation的修饰性

定语,且information在从句中作主语,所以该句为定语从句。

2She heard a terrible noise,____ brought her heart into her

mouth.(MET91)

A. it B. which C. this D. that

析:答案为B。分析语境含义、句子结构和句子成分可知,该句为非限

制性定语从句,先行词为 a terrible noise,且它在从句中作主语。应将该句

区别于:

I can't stand the terrible noise ____ she is crying loudly.

A. it B. which C. this D. that

析:答案为Dshe is crying loudlythe terrible noise的内容,

the terrible noise不在从句中作成分,所以该句为同位语从句。

 

同位语从句和定语从句的三点区别

同位语从句和定语从句很相似,但还是有区别的,区别主要在以下三方面:

1. 从词类上区别

同位语从句面的名词只能是

idea,fact,news,hope,belief,suggestion,proposal,word,thought,doubt,tru

th,possibility,promise,order 等有一定内涵的名词?而定语从句的先行词可

以是名词?代词?主句的一部分或是整个主句?:

The possibility that the majority of the labour force will work

at home is often discussed. (同位语从句)

We are not looking into the question whether he is worth trusting.

(同位语从句)

Word came that he had been abroad. (同位语从句)

Our team has won the game, which made us very happy.

我们的队赢了,这让我们很高兴?(定语从句)

The doctor whom you are looking for is in the room.

你找的那位医生在房间里面?(定语从句)

His mother did all she could to help him with his study.他妈妈尽

她的最大努力帮助他的学习?(定语从句,代词all作先行词?)

2. 从性质上区别

定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同

位语从句是从句对前面抽象名词的进一步的说明和解释,属于名词性从句的范

畴。如:

The news that our team has won the game was true. 我们队赢了那场

比赛的消息是真的?(同位语从句,补充说明news到底是一个什么消息?)

The news that he told me yesterday was true. 昨天他告诉我的那个消

息是真的?(定语从句,news在从句中作told的宾语?)

I made a promise that if anyone set me free I would make him very

rich. 我许诺如果谁让我自由,我就让他非常富有?(同位语从句,补充说明

promise到底是一个什么诺言?)

The mother made a promise that pleased all her children. 妈妈做出

了一个令她的孩子们高兴的许诺?(定语从句,promise在从句中作 pleased的主

?)

3. 从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别

有些引导词如 how, whether, what可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语

从句?:

That question whether we need it has not been considered. 我们是

否需要它这个问题还没有考虑?(同位语从句)

I have no idea what has happened to him. 我不知道他发生了什么

?(同位语从句)

引导词that引导定语从句时,在从句中一般作主语或宾语(指物时还可以用

which代替),并且作宾语时常常省略?that在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充

当任何成分,并且不能省略,也不能用which来代替?:

The order that we should send a few people to help the other

groups was received yesterday. 我们应派几个人去帮别的几个小组的命令昨

天收到了?(同位语从句,是对order的具体解释,that虽不作成分,但不能省略?)

The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other

groups. 我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别的几个小组?(定语从句,是名词

order的修饰语,that在从句中作 received 的宾语,可以省略?)

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