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人教版高中英语语法 必修五 unit2 过去分词做宾语补足语  

2014-07-24 11:03:46|  分类: 高中英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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  • 一、过去分词作宾语补足语:

(一般是及物动词)S+V+O+OC  v-ed被动完成

 1.在下面结构中常用过去分词作补语。

(1)在感观动词(see, hear, notice, watch 等)和表示心理状态的动词(feel, find 等)后。

    She found the door broken in when she came back..

              已破门而入(被)

补充:   See sb. do (be seen to do sth ) (动作全过程)

         See sb. doing (动作正在进行)

         See sb./Sthbeing done (被动动作正在进行)

         See sth.done (完成或无一定的时间性)

①when I was a boy , I used to go there and watch bicycles being repaired. (repair)

②The missing boys were last seen playing near the river.(play)

③The managers discussed the plan (that they would like to see)  carried out  the next year.(carried out)

2、使役动词 (keep, make, get, have, leave,have 等)后

eg. I have my watch repaired.

     我想把我的手表修一下。

     He spoke loudly in order to make himself heard.

     它大声讲话目的是让别人听见他。

 ⑴      leave sb./sth. undone 留下…未做

         leave sb./sth. doing  使...一直处于...状态

         leave sb. to do  留下某人做某事

         leave sb. to be done 留下某事要做

eg. ①He was so careless that he went out leaving the door unlocked(unlock)他太粗心了以致于没有锁门就出去了。

 ②A good study does not necessariny have to have a happy ending,but the reader must not be left  unsatisfied( satisfy ). 

⑵  have sb do “让…干”指一次性全过程 

have sb doing (十延续时间状语)主动,使处于反复不停的进行状态中,

             否定句时或反问句中,”不听任,不容忍 反复发生。”    

have sth done(表被动)“请人干”,“(宾语)遭受…”“使…得以得到”

I’m going to have the teacher answer this question after class. He had the car waiting outside.。他让小汽车在外面等着。

注:have sth done 的三种不同含义:

①表示“请/让/叫别人(为自己做某马)。”

I must have my tooth pulled.(=I must let the dentist pull my tooth.我得把这颗牙给拨了。Pull my tooth.)

Mrs Brown was much disappointed to see th washing mashine she had repaired went wrong again.布朗夫人很失望地看到她找人修理的洗衣机又坏了。

②表示:“遭遇某种(不幸)事情”说明宾语的一种无意识的受动行为不说明“谁使(宾语)遭遇某了”。have “受到,遭到”

I had my purse stolen on th bus yesterday=my purse was stolen on the bus yesterday.

③表示“完成某马”的意思,这些可以是别人完成的,也可以是自己参与完成的

He told me he had his house repaired=He toldme his house was repaired. I must have my home work dinished before I go out to play.出去玩之前我必须先把作业做完。

⑶make sb.do ( be made to do )让某人做…

  make oneself done使自己被…

Ican’t make myself understood(understand)in English 我无法主别人听懂我的英语。

John was made to watch (watch)the truck for a week as punishment.

 ⑷get sb./sth.to do 使…做…  

   get sb./sth. doing 使…开始做… 

   get sb./sth. done 使…被做…

I couldn’t get the car to starting(start)this morning.

He got his sister to help (help)him with his cloths.

It is not hard to get him talking (talk); the problem is stopping him!

让他说话不难,难的是说开了止不住他。

Can you really get that old clock going (go) again?

 

3、like, want, wish, order等表示“希望,要求”等意义的动词后。need, prefer, would like 当过去分词作宾补的不定式的被动形式省略“to be”.

He wanted his eggs fired(fire). 他愿意吃煎鸡蛋。

I would like this matter (to be )settled immediately.

4、{with / without 的复合结构中:

With everything well arranged_(arrange), he left the office.

一切都安排妥善之后,他离开了办公室。

She has come back with her backpack filled(fill) with interesting picture-books.

她已经回来了,背包里塞满了有趣的图书。

Without any more time given(give), we couldn't finish the task in three weeks.
如果不再给我们任何时间的话,我们三星期之内完成不了任务。

ex.现在分词与过去分词作宾语补足语的区别:

               + sb do (经常性动作)

               + sb doing  sth.(正在进行)

               + sth done(被动)

非谓语动词作宾补的比较

一、现在分词作宾补

现在分词作宾补表示动作当时正在进行,尚未结束,强调动作的发生过程或当时一段时间的状态。此时,宾语与宾补之间的关系是主动的主谓关系。下列两类动词之后通常用现在分词作宾补。

1、表“感觉”的动词:see; watch; observe; notice; look at; feel; find; catch; hear; listen to等。例如:

I heard Tom singing an English song in the next room.(汤姆正在发出唱歌这个动作。)

On the top of the hill, he could see smoke rising from the chimneys (炊烟正在发出升起这个动作。)

He looked around and caught a man putting his hand into the pocket of a passenger.

他环顾四周,无意中发现一个人正在偷旅客的钱包。(catch sb doing sth.无意发现某人(正)在做什么)

He was found smoking in the hall, so he was fined heavily. 有人发现他在大厅里抽烟,结果被重罚。

2、表“使役”的动词:have; keep; get; start; send; leave; set等。例如:

His letter left me feeling pretty bad.他的信使我感到相当难受。(指当时那段时间的状态。)

What she said set me thinking她说的话让我深思。(指当时那段时间思考的状态。)

I’m sorry to keep you waiting so long a time. 很抱歉让您久等了。 (指当时那段时间等待的状态。)

二、过去分词作宾补

过去分词作宾补,强调动作的完成和结果,此时,宾语与宾补之间的关系是被动的主谓关系。它主要是用在下列三类动词之后。 

1、  表示感觉的动词,主要有see; watch; observe; notice; look at; feel; find; catch; hear; listen to等。例如:

When they got therethey found the house burnt down(房子已经被烧掉,强调结果。)

I heard the song sung yesterday.( 歌被人。)

2、  表示心理状态的动词:like; think; expect; want; wish等。例如:

The waitress asked the American how he liked his steak cooked.

女服务员问那个美国人愿意怎么烹调牛排。(牛排被烹调。)

  I wish my homework finished before five o’clock..  (作业被完成)

3、  表示使役的动词:have; get; leave; keep; make; order  等。

Don’t leave those things undone..要把那些事情做完。(事情被)

The teacher couldn’t make himself paid attention to because there was too much noise outside.

   老师无法让(学生)集中注意力,因为外面太吵了。(指老师本人不能被学生注意。)

注意:

使役动词have接过去分词作宾补有两种意义,具体指那种意义,要根据上下语境来确定。

过去分词所表示的动作由主语让他人完成的。例如:

1) I’ll have my hair cut tomorrow. (虽然头发被理,但这里指主语让理发师理发。)

2) 过去分词所表示的动作是指主语所经历的一件不好的事情。例如:

He had his leg broken when he was playing football yesterday.

他昨天打足球的时候,腿被摔断了。(虽然腿被摔断,但这里指主语的不好的一次经历,与第一点意思不一样。)

三、动词不定式作宾补

在英语中有些动词要求接动词不定式作宾补。它表示该动作发生在谓语动词之后,属将要发生的动作。应注意如下几个方面:

1、  to的不定式作宾补。有这种用法的动词常见的有:ask; tell; get; wish; like; want; expect; prefer; enable; teach; know; understand; would like; cause; force; know; intend; permit; request; order; invite; encourage; warn; remind; oblige; forbid; challenge; drive等。例如:

Wei Fang asked me to go shopping with her.逛商场这个动作发生在之后。)

Our teacher encouraged us to study harder.努力学习发生在鼓励:之后。)

注意:

1当表示见解、看法的动词后带不定式作宾补时,其宾补形式通常是to beto have done。这类词通常有:believe; consider; declare; discover; guess; declare; find; imagine; judge; feel (认为); suppose; think; understand等。例如:

I consider him to have done wrong.我认为他做错了。

Later, he discovered the story to be true.后来,他发现那个故事是真实。

2表示好恶的动词后带不定式作宾补时,不能用于被动。这类动词主要动词有:like; dislike; prefer; hate; love; want例如:

I hate people to tell lies. 我厌恶人说谎。

Do you prefer me to do the work by myself?你更愿意我独自做这个工作。

3)某些短语动词后可带不定式作宾补。这类动词主要有arrange for; ask for; call on; count on; depend on; long for; rely on; wait for等。例如:

You can not count on Tom to help you.   别指望汤姆能够帮你。

I am waiting for you to reply. 我在等你的答复。

2、  to的不定式作宾补。这类动词有feel; hear; listen to; have; let; make; see; look at; notice; observe; watch。这类动词后的宾补表示该动作已经结束或未来要发生的动作。应注意:在主动语态中省to,在被动语态中要to, 其中have没有被动式。例如:

We saw them play football yesterday. (表示看了打足球整个过程。在主动语态中省to。)

He was made to stand outside for two hours. (在被动语态中要加to。)


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