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人教版高中英语语法 必修四 unit1 主谓一致  

2014-07-24 09:34:18|  分类: 高中英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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主谓一致(Subject- Verb Agreement),指人称数方面的一致关系.:

He is going abroad.

They are playing football. 

可分为:语法一致, 内容一致, 就近一致.

(一) 语法一致原则: 即主语为单数,谓语用单数,主语为复数,谓语也用复数.

 and连接两个或两个以上单数名词或者代词作主语的时候,谓语动词有以下两种情况:

(1) 如果指两个或两个以上不同的人或 事物的时候,谓语动词用复数。如:

  He and I __are_both students of this school.

(2) 如果连接两个以上的名词指的是同一个人或物, 或者指同一概念的时候, 谓语要用单数。

  Eg.  The singer and dancer _is____ on the stage./  

  A knife and fork is used to have meals./    

  The poet and writer has come.那位诗人兼作家来了.(一个人)   The poet and  the writer have come.

  War and peace is often people’s topic

 :bread and butter(黄油抹面包), knife and fork(刀叉)等作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。

  whisky and soda 汽水  salt and water 盐水  a needle and thread针线;

  a horse and cart四轮马车; a watch and chain表链; war and peace战争与和平;  truth and honesty;

 

  A singer and  dancer _______been invited to the party.

  A singer and  a  dancer _______been invited to the party.

(3) and连接的两个或多个主语前如有each, every, no, many a(许多)more than one 等修饰时,尽管从意义上看是复数, 但它的谓语动词仍用单数.

Eg.  1)Every tree and (every) flower  is  to be cut down.

     2)In our country each boy and (each) girl  has  right to receive education 

     3)No sound and no voice  is  heard.

     4)Many a boy and girl has  made the same mistake.

     5)More than one student  was  late.

   注意:但more+复数名词+than one做主语时, 谓语动词仍用复数

   More persons than one come to help us. 不止一个人来帮助我们。

(4)  each of   /either of./    one of…谓语动词用单数.
 Eg.  Each of us has something to say.
我们每个人都有话要说

(5) none 做主语时,谓语动词可用单数, 也可用复数; 但在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数,因而谓语动词要用单数.
Eg.  None of us are (is) perfect.
  人无完人。
     None of this worries me.
  这事一点不使我着急。

     None of this money is mine.  这些钱都不是我的。

 

(6) 单数主语即使后面带有with , along with, together with, like(), but (除了),except, besides, as well as, no less than, rather than(而不是), including, in addition to 引导的短语, 谓语动词仍用单数.
Eg.  Air as well as water  is  matter.
   空气和水都是物质.
     No one except two servants  was  late for the dinner. 
除了两个仆人外, 没有一个人迟来用餐。

 The teacher with two students __was _ at the meeting .

 Mary, together with her parents, ____has been _to  the Summer Palace twice.

(7) 名词如: trousers, scissors, clothes, goods, glasses 等作主语时, 谓语动词必须用复数. :
Eg.  His clothes are good. ////   These scissors are sharp. 
但这些名词前若出现 a pair of , 谓语一般用单数.:A pair of glasses is on the desk. 桌上有一副眼镜。

(8) 主语是书名,剧名,报纸名,国名等复数形式的名词,仍为个体,谓语用单数。

    形复意单名词如:news ; ics 结尾的学科名称: physics, mathematics, economics; 国名: the   United States; 报纸名如: the New Times; 书名: Arabian Nights <天方夜谈>; 以及The United Nations<联合国> 等作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。  Eg. The United States is a developed country.

 

(9) “a +名词+and a half “, “one and a half + 名词”, “the number of + 名词等作主语时, 谓语动词要用单数. Only one and a half apples is left on the table.
注意: one or two + 复数名词作主语, 谓语动词用复数形式, :
One or two places have been visited.
参观了一两个地点。

(10) 不定式(短语), 动名词(短语), 或从句作主语时, 谓语动词用单数. :
Eg.  Serving the people is my great happiness. 
为人民服务是我最大的幸福.

 Collecting stamps is his hobby.  收集邮票是他的爱好。
     When we’ll go out for an outing has been decided.
我们什么时候出去郊游已决定了。

 When and where we will go hasn’t been decided.

注意:但当what引导的句子做主语,若后面是 be +...”的结构时,谓语随....变化。

Eg:    1.)What you did was right.

       2.)What you need are these dictionaries

(11)  复合不定代词作主语, 谓语动词要用单数,如someone ,somebody, something, anybody, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, no one, nothing

Eg:    Someone is asking for you.  有人找你。

      Nothing is found in the room.   在屋子里什么也没找到

(二) 内容一致原则:
1.主语中有all, half, most, the rest, 以及分数或百分数percent  +名词  ”做主语时,谓语动词单复数取决于连用的名词.

 

Eg:
   The rest of the bikes are on sale today.
   剩下的自行车,今天出售。
   60% (60 percent )of the apple was eaten by little boy.
  这个苹果的60%都被这个小男孩吃了。

   20 percent of the workers in the factory are women.    工厂里百分之20的工人是女人。

   One third of the students in our class____are___ girls.

   Most of the apples were rotten. 大部分的苹果都是烂的。
   Most of the apple was eaten by a rat. 
这个苹果的大部分被老鼠吃了。

2. 不定数量的词组, :part of , a lot of , lots of , one of , a number of , plenty of等作主语时, 谓语动词的单复数取决于量词后面名词的数.:
Eg:  A part of the textbooks have arrived. 
一小部分教科书已运到。
     A part of the apple has been eaten up by the rat. 
这个苹果的一部分被猪吃光了。       

3. 主语是疑问代词who, what, which,不定代词其谓语视它们所代指的名词而定。

   Eg:

      1.)Which is more valuable, health or wealth?

      2.)Which are prettier, these or those?

    

4. 加减乘除用单数.:minus ,plus ,multiply, divide
Eg:  Fifteen minus five is ten . 15
减去5等于10

5. 表示时间, 金钱, 距离, 度量等的名词做主语时, 尽管是复数形式, 它们作为一个单一的概念时, 其谓语动词用单数.:
 Eg:  Sixty years is a long time.

      Ten dollars is enough for him.

      Three thousand miles is a long distance.

      Fifty kilograms is not too long to be carried.

 

 

 

()意义一致原则

(1) 通常作复数的集体名词. 包括police , people, cattle , 这些集体名词通常用作复数.:
 Eg:   The British police have only very limited powers.

        The police are searching for a thief.

        The cattle are eating grass on the hill.

(2) 通常作不可数名词的集体名词. 包括equipment, furniture, clothing, luggage .
(3)
集合名词作主语, 动词可用单数, 也可以用复数。主要由句子的意思决定。强调整体谓语动词用单数;指全体人员时, 动词则用复数。这一类常见的集合名词有public, family, class, crowd, population, team, group

  Eg:   The group _is___ made up of three students./

         The group___are_ dancing happily./

   Eg:   The team ____ some good players. (have)/

         The team ____ handsome. (be)/

   Eg:   Zhang’s family  ____ rather big, with twelve people in all./

         His family      all music lovers./

         Your  class     just behind our class./

         The whole class        fond of music ./    

   Eg:  The population of China _______far larger than that of Japan./

        Eighty percent of the population in China ________ farmers./

 

(4) 单复数同形的词如 sheep, deer, Chinese, Japanese, means(方法,手段), works(著作, 工厂) 作主语, 谓语动词应根据上下文取决单复数.

      1>.Every means ______ been tried to solve the problem.

        All means _______ been tried to solve the problem.

 

 (5)  the+形容词做主语时,表示一类人或物时,谓语动词为复数;表示具体一个个体时,谓语动词为单数。

    Eg1) The young are better at learning new things./   The injured were saved after the fire.

        2) The young is my uncle.    

   注意:the +adj.表示一类抽象概念时,谓语也单数

   Eg The new is sure to replace the old.



(四) 就近原则
1.
here, there, where 等引导的倒装句中, (有时主语不止一个时)谓语动词与靠近它的主语在数上一致.:
2.
用连词or, either.... or, neither….nor, not only….but also 等连接的并列主语, 谓语动词与靠近它的主语在数上一致。

  Eg Neither my wife nor I myself ____ able to persuade my daughter to change her mind

       Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ tired of having one examination after another

       Not the teacherbut the students ____ looking forward to seeing the film

 

注意: one of +复数名词+who/that/which 引导的定语从句中, 定语从句的动词为复数。The only one of +复数名词+ who/that./which 引导的定语从句中,定语从句的动词应为单数。

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